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Coronavirus Resource Center
As coronavirus continues to spread, many questions and answers
We know a lot more about COVD-19 than we did in 2020 and yet we're still learning. We will continue to provide important updates. You can search previous questions and answers as well as read related blog posts and reference our COVID glossary.
Additional information on coronavirus and COVID-19 can be found on other pages within the Resource Center.
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- World Health Organization
- Johns Hopkins University COVID-19 Interactive Map
- Harvard Medical School's HMX Online Learning team is offering a selection of immunity-related videos and interactive materials to help with understanding how the body reacts to threats like the coronavirus that causes COVID-19, and the role that vaccines can play in generating an immune response.
- Resources on Health Disparities and COVID-19
Interested in participating in COVID-19 research by tracking daily symptoms through a simple app? Help doctors and scientists at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health study the symptoms of COVID-19 and track the spread of this virus by downloading the COVID Symptom Study app.
aerosols: infectious viral particles that can float or drift around in the air. Aerosols are emitted by a person infected with coronavirus — even one with no symptoms — when they talk, breathe, cough, or sneeze. Another person can breathe in these aerosols and become infected with the virus. Aerosolized coronavirus can remain in the air for up to three hours. A mask can help prevent that spread.
antibodies: proteins made by the immune system to fight infections. If the antibodies later encounter the same infection, they help prevent illness by recognizing the microbe and preventing it from entering cells.
antibody test: also known as a serologic test, an antibody test is a blood test that looks for antibodies created by your immune system. An antibody test can indicate if you were previously infected but is not a reliable way to determine whether you are currently infected.
antigen: a substance displayed on the surface of a microbe that stimulates the body to produce an immune response.
antigen test: a diagnostic test that detects specific proteins on the surface of the virus.
booster: an additional dose of COVID-19 vaccine given after protection from the initial vaccine series begins to decline. A homologous booster is the same brand as the initial vaccine; a heterologous booster is a different brand than the initial vaccine.
community spread (community transmission): is said to have occurred when people have been infected without any knowledge of contact with someone who has the same infection
contact tracing: a process that begins with identifying everyone a person diagnosed with a given illness (in this case COVID-19) has been in contact with since they became contagious. The contacts are notified that they are at risk, and may include those who share the person's home, as well as people who were in the same place around the same time as the person with COVID-19 — a school, office, restaurant, or doctor's office, for example. Contacts may be quarantined or asked to isolate themselves if they start to experience symptoms, and are more likely to be tested for coronavirus if they begin to experience symptoms.
containment: refers to limiting the spread of an illness. Because no vaccines exist to prevent COVID-19 and no specific therapies exist to treat it, containment is done using public health interventions. These may include identifying and isolating those who are ill, and tracking down anyone they have had contact with and possibly placing them under quarantine.
diagnostic test: indicates whether you are currently infected with COVID-19. A sample is collected using a swab of your nose, your nose and throat, or your saliva. The sample is then checked for the virus's genetic material (PCR test) or for specific viral proteins (antigen test).
effectiveness: indicates the benefit of a vaccine in the real world.
efficacy: indicates the benefit of a vaccine compared to a placebo in the context of a clinical trial.
epidemic: a disease outbreak in a community or region
flattening the curve: refers to the epidemic curve, a statistical chart used to visualize the number of new cases over a given period of time during a disease outbreak. Flattening the curve is shorthand for implementing mitigation strategies to slow things down, so that fewer new cases develop over a longer period of time. This increases the chances that hospitals and other healthcare facilities will be equipped to handle any influx of patients.
false negative: a test result that mistakenly indicates you are not infected when you are.
false positive: a test result that mistakenly indicates you are infected when you are not.
herd immunity: herd immunity occurs when enough people become immune to a disease to make its spread unlikely. As a result, the entire community is protected, even those who are not themselves immune. Herd immunity is usually achieved through vaccination, but it can also occur through natural infection.
immunity: partial or complete protection from a specific infection because a person has either had that infection previously or has been vaccinated against it.
incubation period: the period of time between exposure to an infection and when symptoms begin
isolation: the separation of people with a contagious disease from people who are not sick
long-haulers: people who have not fully recovered from COVID-19 weeks or even months after first experiencing symptoms.
mitigation: refers to steps taken to limit the impact of an illness. Because no vaccines exist to prevent COVID-19 and no specific therapies exist to treat it, mitigation strategies may include frequent and thorough handwashing, not touching your face, staying away from people who are sick, social distancing, avoiding large gatherings, and regularly cleaning frequently touched surfaces and objects at home, in schools, at work, and in other settings.
mutation: A change to a virus’s genetic material that occurs when the virus is replicating. The change is passed on to future generations of the virus.
monoclonal antibodies: laboratory-produced proteins designed to mimic naturally occurring antibodies that target specific antigens on viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells.
mRNA: short for messenger ribonucleic acid, mRNA is genetic material that contains instructions for making proteins.
mRNA vaccines: mRNA vaccines for COVID-19 contain synthetic mRNA. Inside the body, the mRNA enters human cells and instructs them to produce the "spike" protein found on the surface of the COVID-19 virus. The body recognizes the spike protein as an invader, and produces antibodies against it. If the antibodies later encounter the actual virus, they are ready to recognize and destroy it before it causes illness.
pandemic: a disease outbreak affecting large populations or a whole region, country, or continent
physical distancing: also called social distancing, refers to actions taken to stop or slow down the spread of a contagious disease. For an individual, it refers to maintaining enough physical distance (a minimum of six feet) between yourself and another person to reduce the risk of breathing in droplets or aerosols that are produced when an infected person breathes, talks, coughs, or sneezes.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test: a diagnostic test that detects the presence of the virus's genetic material.
post-viral syndrome: the constellation of symptoms experienced by COVID-19 long haulers. These symptoms may include fatigue, brain fog, shortness of breath, chills, body ache, headache, joint pain, chest pain, cough, and lingering loss of taste or smell.
presumptive positive test result: a positive test for the virus that causes COVID-19, performed by a local or state health laboratory, is considered "presumptive" until the result is confirmed by the CDC. While awaiting confirmation, people with a presumptive positive test result will be considered to be infected.
quarantine: separates and restricts the movement of people who have a contagious disease, have symptoms that are consistent with the disease, or were exposed to a contagious disease, to see if they become sick
SARS-CoV-2: short for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2 is the official name for the virus responsible for COVID-19.
social distancing: also called physical distancing, refers to actions taken to stop or slow down the spread of a contagious disease. For an individual, it refers to maintaining enough physical distance (a minimum of six feet) between yourself and another person to reduce the risk of breathing in droplets or aerosols that are produced when an infected person breathes, talks, coughs, or sneezes. It is possible to safely maintain social connections while social distancing, through phone calls, video chats, and social media platforms.
spike protein: a protein on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that binds to and allows the virus to enter human cells.
variant: A virus containing one or more mutations that make it different from a version of the virus that has been circulating.
variants of concern: SARS-CoV-2 viruses with mutations that make them more likely to spread, evade vaccines, or make people sicker.
vector: a harmless capsule. In a vaccine, a vector may be used to deliver a substance into the body in order to prompt an immune response.
virus: a virus is the smallest of infectious microbes, smaller than bacteria or fungi. A virus consists of a small piece of genetic material (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein shell. Viruses cannot survive without a living cell in which to reproduce. Once a virus enters a living cell (the host cell) and takes over a cell's inner workings, the cell cannot carry out its normal life-sustaining tasks. The host cell becomes a virus manufacturing plant, making viral parts that then reassemble into whole viruses and go on to infect other cells. Eventually, the host cell dies.
Image: Naeblys/Getty Images
Harvard Health Publishing Coronavirus Resource Center Experts
The Harvard Health Publishing team would like to acknowledge the Harvard Medical School experts who have contributed their time and expertise: Steven A. Adelman, MD; Ashwini Bapat, MD; Nicole Baumer, MD, MEd; Suzanne Bertisch, MD, MPH; Joseph R. Betancourt, MD, MPH; Barry R. Bloom, PhD; Emeric Bojarski, MD; Melissa Brodrick, MEd; Andrew E. Budson, MD; Stephanie Collier, MD, MPH; Todd Ellerin, MD; Huma Farid, MD; Elizabeth Pegg Frates, MD; Robert Gabbay, MD, PhD, FACP; Alan Geller, MPH, RN; Ellen S. Glazer, LICSW; David C. Grabowski, PhD; Shelly Greenfield, MD, MPH; Ilona T. Goldfarb, MD, MPH; Peter Grinspoon, MD; Abraar Karan, MD, MPH, DTM&H; Sabra L. Katz-Wise, PhD; Alyson Kelley-Hedgepeth, MD; Anthony Komaroff, MD; Douglas Krakower, MD; Debi LaPlante, PhD; Howard E. LeWine, MD; Dara K. Lee Lewis, MD; Sharon Levy, MD, MPH; Kristina Liu, MD, MHS; Julia Marcus, PhD, MPH; Luana Marques, PhD; Claire McCarthy, MD; Chris McDougle, MD; Babar Memon, MD, MSc; Kristin Moffitt, MD; Uma Naidoo, MD; Janelle Nassim, MD; Justin Neiman; Vikram Patel, MBBS, PhD; Edward Phillips, MD; Shiv Pillai, PhD, MBBS; John Ross, MD, FIDSA; Lee H. Schwamm, MD; Catherine Ullman Shade, PhD, MEd; Howard J. Shaffer, PhD, CAS; Roger Shapiro, MD, MPH; John Sharp, MD; Amy C. Sherman, MD; Robert H. Shmerling, MD; Jacqueline Sperling, PhD; Fatima Cody Stanford, MD, MPH, MPA, FAAP, FACP, FTOS; Dawn Sugarman, PhD; Monique Tello, MD, MPH; Robyn Thom, MD; Karen Turner, OTR/L; Rochelle Wallensky, MD, MPH; Janice Ware, PhD; Bobbi Wegner, PsyD; Scott Weiner, MD; Sarah Wilkie, MS; Anna R. Wolfson, MD.
As a service to our readers, Harvard Health Publishing provides access to our library of archived content. Please note the date of last review or update on all articles.
No content on this site, regardless of date, should ever be used as a substitute for direct medical advice from your doctor or other qualified clinician.
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