The tragedy of long COVID

Anthony Komaroff, MD

Editor in Chief, Harvard Health Letter

Suppose you are suddenly are stricken with COVID-19. You become very ill for several weeks. On awakening every morning, you wonder if this day might be your last.

And then you begin to turn the corner. Every day your worst symptoms — the fever, the terrible cough, the breathlessness — get a little better. You are winning, beating a life-threatening disease, and you no longer wonder if each day might be your last. In another week or two, you’ll be your old self.

But weeks pass, and while the worst symptoms are gone, you’re not your old self — not even close. You can’t meet your responsibilities at home or at work: no energy. Even routine physical exertion, like vacuuming, leaves you feeling exhausted. You ache all over. You’re having trouble concentrating on anything, even watching TV; you’re unusually forgetful; you stumble over simple calculations. Your brain feels like it’s in a fog.

Your doctor congratulates you: the virus can no longer be detected in your body. That means you should be feeling fine. But you’re not feeling fine.

The doctor suggests that maybe the terrible experience of being ill with COVID-19 has left you a little depressed, or experiencing a little PTSD. Maybe some psychiatric treatment would help, since there’s nothing wrong with you physically. You try the treatment, and it doesn’t help.

How common are lingering COVID symptoms?

Tens of thousands of people in the United States have lingering illness following COVID-19. In the US, we call them post-COVID “long haulers.” Currently, the condition they are suffering from is known as “long COVID,” although other names are being proposed.

Published studies (see here and here) and surveys conducted by patient groups indicate that 50% to 80% of patients continue to have bothersome symptoms three months after the onset of COVID-19 — even after tests no longer detect virus in their body.

Which lingering symptoms are common?

The most common symptoms are fatigue, body aches, shortness of breath, difficulty concentrating, inability to exercise, headache, and difficulty sleeping. Since COVID-19 is a new disease that first appeared in December 2019, we have no information on long-term recovery rates.

Moving toward a better definition of long haulers — and a new name

Very different chronic illnesses may develop in some people who have had COVID-19. So, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has proposed a unifying name: post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, or PASC. (SARS-CoV-2 is the virus that causes COVID-19.)

Most people who get COVID-19 recover within weeks or a few months. However, some will likely suffer chronic damage to their lungs, heart, kidneys or brain that the virus inflicted. Others will develop long COVID.

We do not yet have a formal definition of long COVID. In my opinion, such a definition should include these three points:

  • A medical diagnosis of COVID-19, based on both symptoms and/or diagnostic testing for the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus
  • Not having returned to pre-COVID-19 level of health and function after six months
  • Having symptoms that suggest long COVID, but no evidence of permanent damage to the lungs, heart, and kidneys that could cause those symptoms.

Is long COVID the same as chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS)?

Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, has speculated that long COVID likely is the same as or very similar to myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS).

ME/CFS can be triggered by other infectious illnesses — such as mononucleosis, Lyme disease, or severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), another coronavirus disease. Before the pandemic, the National Academy of Medicine estimated that as many as 2.5 million people in the US are living with ME/CFS. I recently published an article in the journal Frontiers in Medicine  indicating that the pandemic could well double that number in the next year.

Who is more likely to become a long hauler?

Currently, we can’t accurately predict who will become a long hauler. As an article in Science notes, people only mildly affected by COVID-19 still can have lingering symptoms, and people who were severely ill can be back to normal two months later.

However, continued symptoms are more likely to occur in people over age 50, people with two or three chronic illnesses, and, possibly, people who became very ill with COVID-19.

What might cause the symptoms that plague long haulers?

Research is underway to test several theories. People who have ME/CFS, and possibly people with long COVID, may have one or more of these abnormalities:

  • an ongoing low level of inflammation in the brain
  • an autoimmune condition in which the body makes antibodies that attack the brain
  • decreased blood flow to the brain, due to abnormalities of the autonomic nervous system
  • difficulty making enough energy molecules to satisfy the needs of the brain and body.

The bottom line

How many people may develop long COVID? We can only guess. By late February, 2021, almost 30 million Americans were confirmed to have been infected by the virus. Probably many more were never diagnosed. Early studies indicate that one in ten people with COVID-19 may develop long COVID that lasts at least a year. Ultimately, how long these illnesses last remains to be determined.

For this and many other reasons, the strain on the American health care system and economy from the pandemic will not end soon. Fortunately, the NIH and CDC have committed major support for research on long COVID. In the US and around the world, planning is underway to develop centers dedicated to research into long COVID and caring for those who have it.

Virtually every health professional I know believes that the pandemic in the US could and should have been better controlled than it has been. Bad mistakes rarely lead to only temporary damage.

Related Information: COVID-19, Flu, and Colds


  1. Mark Donovan

    Thank you for the article. I had mild Covid-19 symptoms in early April, but did not quality for testing at that time. I have the Long Hauler symptoms. I had cardiology and pulmonology testing done over the summer, but they didn’t show anything definitive.

    Tuesday, I read your article on CFS. I discussed it with my doctor and even though I am not officially diagnosed, she suggested that I starting living my life to CFS guidelines, as far as pacing myself.

    After reading more about ME/CFS, so many odd medical issues, that I never had answers for, now make sense. While it sucks not having a cure, knowing what is causing the issues makes it easier to deal with them.

  2. Molly Shaw

    Thank you for information. I’ve been sick since March 21st, didn’t get tested for covid19 until I was sick for weeks and tested negative five times. I have all of the ongoing issues you listed and it is a struggle just to breathe. I also had inflammation issues before this virus.

  3. Claire

    As my husband was in a Covid ICU for 2 weeks, I was home, on my own to deal with”mild” Covid.

    I basically slept a lot, drank lots of Gatorade, kept a close watch on oxygen levels and cried.

    We both recovered. Now we are both having hair loss. I’ve been through chemo and have had to deal with chunks of hair coming out. This is not like chemo, but it is not good.

    It’s been a sad and tough road. My mom died of Covid in April, we both got Covid and watching the number of so many people dying is heart wrenching.

    Wear masks, social distance and wash your hands, that’s what my mom would always say.

    Stay safe. Be well.

  4. Kolya Krece

    Post-COVID cases of ME/CFS will not actually place much of a load on the health care system for the simple reason that the health care system by and large ignores people with ME/CFS. It does not devote much in the way of resources to studying the physiology of their illness. Nor are many resources allocated to treating people who are so sick with ME/CFS that they are bed bound or home bound.

    So don’t worry – if the past is any guide post-COVID ME/CFS patients will be treated just like most ME/CFS patients have already been – they will be ignored and their suffering largely delegitimized and minimized.

  5. Lisa

    Long-haulers should treat themselves with ‘aggressive rest’ in the hopes of recovering their former level of function. I have pushed through ME, rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia for far too long out of necessity. I keep getting worse.

  6. Nancy Blake

    The connection with exertion, therefore the importance of rest should be researched, but it won’t be, because who would make any money from telling patients what our grandparents told us: when you’re sick, go to bed and stay there until you’re better.

    We know viruses can remain latent and be reactivated, producing apparently unrelated outcomes: chicken pox to shingles, German measles to fetal damage, for example. Is this what is happening in long covid, when symptoms develop after the patient seems virus- free?

    We know that our immune system requires energy to fight a virus. But ‘sickness behaviour’, Nature’ s way of
    making us conserve our energy for use by our immune system has been stigmatised by psychiatry: CBT and exercise have replaced convalescence with ‘rehabilitation’.

    We myalgic encephalomyelitis veterans of decades-long incapacity and intractable pain often brought on by graded exercise look on with pity and horror at news clips of long term (three months!) covid patients collapsed over exercise bikes…. please don’t let what was, and still is done to us be inflicted on them!

    Ramsay’s patients given six months rest actually recovered. Today there is the occasional Facebook post: ‘My doctor just gave me a six month sick note and told me to go home and rest. I’m completely well now.’

    The 2015 IOM report on ME/CFS concluded that this is a disease of which the defining characteristic is that ‘exertion of any kind – physical, cognitive or emotional – may adversely affect many organ systems…’. (last sentence before the recommendation for the name ‘Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease ‘).

    Rest, convalescence, good nursing care, beginning with guidelines for self care and home nursing , and continuing for the long term when needed must be the way forward.

    Ramsay, on ME:
    ‘The syndrome which is currently known as Myalgic Encephalomyelitis in the UK and Epidemic Neuromyasthenia in the USA leaves a chronic aftermath of debility in a large number of cases. The degree of physical incapacity varies greatly, but the dominant clinical feature of profound fatigue is directly related to the length of time the patient persists in physical effort after its onset; put in another way, those patients who are given a period of enforced rest from the onset have the best prognosis.’
    (Ramsay, M. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: A Baffling Syndrome With a Tragic Aftermath.

  7. Kate Porter

    Thank you for covering this topic. I’m 35, almost at 7 months of lingering symptoms and was previously healthy.

    Amy Watson, a long hauler from Oregon is the first to label us “long haulers”. She created a group for us with that name — for those of us who connected back in April and realized we were far past the average 2 week period they claimed it would take to recover.

    Does Harvard have any plans to help uncover causes and potential treatment for these long term issues? We don’t necessarily fit the ME/CFS profile (some overlap but large differences as well).

    • Mary Smith

      I had all of the symptoms in February. But when they tested me for antibodies in June they were not present. I never want to ever be that sick again. I couldn’t taste or smell for over 6 weeks . I still ache and my hair continues to fall out. My brain was mush for months and I never had COPD stage 1 before. My brain is different and can’t make decisions. Anybody have any ideas?

      • Heavenly Williams

        Mary, you’re not alone. Many people have suffered beyond what was expected after contracting covid19. I know someone who is not their precovid self..extreme fatigue that coffee can’t touch, diabetes, & yes even the functions of the brain. I have a friend who has lost 6 people within 2 months. 4 of those are from covid. These are unprecedented times we are living in. Prayers that all will be healed in Jesus name.

Commenting has been closed for this post.