No more counting sheep: Proven behaviors to help you sleep

As humans, we spend about one-third of our lives asleep. Though science has taught us about the human brain’s exquisite control of our daily sleep and wake patterns, tens of millions of Americans still don’t get the sleep they need. Nearly 20% of American adults report using a sleep medication to help them sleep, despite known side effects and information about how well they really work. Some people turn to alcohol for relief. And many have tried everything without relief.

Whether your problem is experiencing lack of quality sleep, feeling sleepy during the day, or not being able to get the seven to nine hours of sleep each night that most people need, first ask yourself, “What habits can I change to improve my sleep?”

Do you have good sleep hygiene? In general, sleep hygiene refers to practicing behaviors that promote sleep and stopping behaviors that are bad for sleep:

Nighttime tips to help with sleep

  • Get up at the same time every day, even on the weekends. A regular wake time helps to set your body’s natural clock (circadian rhythm) by making sure you do not oversleep. Sleeping in too much can impact your ability to fall and stay asleep the next night, or the night after that.
  • Go to bed when you are sleepy, not just tired. Listen to your body. There are certain times at night that your body will be able to sleep better than others. Going to bed before you are sleepy, or before your body is ready to sleep, will frustrate you. If you feel sleepy, but your brain is busy thinking, it can’t shut off and go to sleep. It may be helpful to sit down with a pen and paper in the evening and write down the things that worry you, or perform some relaxation techniques, such as slow breathing or yoga.
  • Put away ALL electronics two hours before bedtime. Put away ALL electronics two hours before bedtime. (Yes, it’s so important, I am saying this twice!) Cell phones, tablets, and all electronic devices make it harder for your brain to turn off, and also may interfere with your body clock. If you must use your device, use a program that reduces blue light exposure, such as Night Shift in Apple products or f.lux for Android devices.
  • Create a comfortable sleep environment: a place that is cool, dark, and quiet.
  • Use your bed for sleep and sex only. Doing other activities in bed will train your brain into thinking that activities other than sleep are appropriate in bed.

Daytime tips to help with sleep

  • Avoid or limit caffeine. Caffeine can make you more alert during the day, but many people are sensitive to its effects. Even one or two cups in the early part of the day can disrupt your sleep at night.
  • Avoid or limit alcohol. While alcohol can help people fall asleep, it leads to more sleep problems at night. Alcohol can also cause more trips to the bathroom in the middle of the night.
  • Have a regular schedule for meals, exercise, and other activities, as this is often helpful for helping to set your body’s circadian rhythm. In addition, exercise during the day can help improve your sleep quality at night.
  • Treat medical problems that may interfere with sleep, such as chronic pain, or mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety. If you have any of these problems, you should discuss them with your doctor.
  • Don’t smoke. If you are having trouble quitting smoking, there are many good resources to help you quit, and your doctor can help you here, too.

What if I work multiple jobs or do shift work?

Sometimes there are factors that impact our sleep that we can’t control. If you work shifts, strategies such as taking naps before evening shifts, and minimizing light exposure when coming off evening shifts and planning to sleep, may help.

I’m doing all these things and I still can’t sleep!

This may be a sign that you have a clinical sleep problem, such as insomnia disorder or sleep apnea. If you are doing all the right things and practicing good sleep hygiene, and still have trouble falling or staying asleep, you may need to see a sleep specialist. It is important to know that sleep hygiene can help some people sleep better, but behavioral treatment of insomnia is much more than just sleep hygiene; it is a proven, nondrug method to treat insomnia. Behavioral treatments for insomnia provide each person with their own “prescription” to change their sleep behaviors, which resets your brain to achieve healthy sleep.

Below are a few trusted resources that can get you familiar with behavioral treatments for insomnia:

Getting the Sleep You Need, Harvard Medical School Division of Sleep Medicine

Insomnia Treatment, American Association of Sleep Medicine

Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine

Dr. Bertisch will present “Understanding the Role of Non-Pharmacologic Treatments in Insomnia” at the Osher Center for Integrative Medicine Grand Rounds at Brigham and Women’s Hospital on November 6, 2018, from 8 to 9 AM. Members of the public are welcome to attend her talk.


  1. Leah

    I’ve found that lavender oils help my child sleep. For me personally I love reading in bed at night time after dinner. Exercise is always recommended. And a glass of wine does the trick. I try and limit my consumption of alcohol however.

  2. Suzie Bertisch

    The first step would to make sure there is a not a medical conditions causing you to go to the bathroom at night, although this can be very typical. Reducing fluid intake in the evening is one thing to try. Also keeping the room as dark as possible when you wake up in the middle of the night. If you are having trouble falling back to sleep after 20 min, try to go into another room to sleep or do a quiet activity for a period of time. Some of the other comments provide links to some relaxation techniques that you could try. What you are experiencing is very common, and the closer you wake up to your wake time, the harder it is to fall asleep.

  3. Rich

    I . Watch tv in bed, and time the tv to go off. In an hour or so. I listen to the radio when I get up to pee (3x at night), and time that to go off.
    When my mental health was more compromised by anxiety it wasn’t this way, until therapy. A freeer mind helps sleep.
    By watching tv or listening to radio, I believe it “dulls my mind from reality”, which helps me to sleep.
    Do you ever go to sleep at night , and awaken in a few hours feeling good? That’s why I’ll listen to the radio, to get back to sleep. I use a pillow speaker so I don’t wake my wife.. comments?

  4. Suzie Bertisch

    Yes, Alistair. What you describe is commonly experienced by many patients with insomnia.
    This is why for patients with insomnia disorder, we recommend additional behavioral techniques, such as limiting the time you spend in bed (which tends to be the exact opposite of what people do) and getting out of bed if you are not sleeping for more than 20 minutes. These techniques not only reduce the frustration, but also increase the body and brain’s drive to sleep and also reduces arousal from the environment.

    And thanks for the music recommendation–relaxing and distracting activities are often helpful for people.

  5. Sharon Leslie

    Do not have trouble going to sleep, but if I have to make a trip to the bathroom in the middle of the night (after 3-5 hrs sleep), it is sometimes hard to get back to sleep. Any solutions for this problem?

  6. Takura

    I have always needed not more than four hours sleep to face the next day. And when it’s time for me to sleep, I just knock out into a stooper you could walk over me; I can literally use a loud speaker/sub woofer in a pub as a pillow and sleep! And if I lie down when ready to sleep, I will be out in under five minutes! Sometimes I sleep for two hours and wake up feeling like I’ve sleeping forever. I normally just wake up at 3AM, alarm or no alarm. Am I abnormal?

    • Suzie Bertisch

      Hi Takura, It is very unusual to for someone to require only 4 hours of sleep each night, though it is possible you are among the 2% that can sleep less than 6 hours a night and not feel the consequences.

  7. Sheryl

    Is it possible to come off sleep medication if you have been on it for 30 years?

    • Suzie Bertisch

      Yes, it is. It does require working with a health care provider, and may work better if you also work with a sleep provider who can council you about sleep behaviors that may give you a better chance to come off the medications. Given the risk of sleep medications, it is always worth trying. I suggest you discuss this first with the prescribing doctor.

  8. Val Laing

    I find listening to an audible book very helpful in getting to sleep quickly.

  9. Alistair

    I’ve always found the problem with sleep is the catch-22 situation where you’re trying so hard to go to sleep that you are then adding to the problem, and are worrying about not being able to sleep!

    It is a hard one – I’ve found this piece of music works quite often for me though.

    • Jencks Penelope

      I find that listening to a book on my iPhone, and setting it to stop in 1/2 hour keeps me from thinking about stuff that stops me from relaxing, and often lulls me to sleep. Sometimes i fall asleep after it has stopped, but at least i do relax, so if i haven’t fallen asleep by the time it stops, i usually do pretty soon after.

      If you forget to set the “timer”, though, the voice will probably wake you up later, as your sleep becomes shallower.

    • Karen

      A great tip I read was to not try to sleep, rather try to relax, much easier and for me, results in sleep!

    • Debra

      What music helps you?

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