Diabetes

Diabetes occurs when the body has trouble using the sugar it gets from food for energy. Sugar builds up in the bloodstream. High blood sugar can have immediate effects, like blurry vision. It can also cause problems over time, like heart disease and blindness.

There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes (once called juvenile-onset diabetes) and type 2 diabetes (once called adult-onset diabetes). Both are caused by problems making or using insulin, a hormone that makes it possible for cells to use glucose, also known as blood sugar, for energy.

When you eat, your body breaks down carbohydrates into a simple sugar called glucose. It also produces a hormone called insulin that signals the body's cells to absorb glucose from the bloodstream. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body doesn't make enough insulin, or stops making it altogether. Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body's cells don't respond to insulin. Either way, since sugar can't get into cells, it builds up in the bloodstream. 

Too much sugar in the blood can cause a range of uncomfortable symptoms. These include:

  • blurry vision
  • intense thirst
  • need to urinate often
  • fatigue
  • numbness or tingling in the hands or feet

Type 1 diabetes often comes on suddenly. It usually strikes children and teenagers, but can appear later in life. It is an autoimmune disease, meaning it happens because the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the body's insulin-making cells. Type 1 diabetes can't be cured, but it can be managed by taking insulin before eating.

Type 2 diabetes takes longer to develop. It can begin any time from childhood onward. Type 2 diabetes is usually triggered by being overweight or obese and not getting much physical activity. Treatment for type 2 diabetes includes weight loss if needed, daily exercise, a healthy diet, and medications.

Diabetes Articles

Transforming the treatment of diabetes

A program that uses a smartphone app and telemedicine to provide frequent virtual office visits for people with diabetes may help them manage their disease more effectively. People in the program also receive a glucose monitor to test their blood sugar and use the app to send their results to a cloud-based server, where clinicians can review the results. The app also provides detailed lifestyle intervention plans, including an animated figure that demonstrates exercises and menus that include common foods that people eat everyday but with less carbohydrate, more protein, and smaller portions. (Locked) More »

Food ingredients under the microscope

New technology is allowing scientists to better understand how food ingredients and additives affect the body. Scientists recently found that one additive, propionate, which is used as a preservative in many food products including bread and other baked goods, may trigger an unhealthy surge in blood sugar that can lead to diabetes and obesity. Researchers are doing more studies on the preservative to confirm these initial findings. (Locked) More »

The best beverages for your heart

Sugary beverages such as sodas and lemonade are closely linked to a higher risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Even healthy-sounding beverages such as 100% fruit juice and vitamin water contain as much sugar as regular sodas. The liquid sugars (which contain glucose and fructose) in juice and soda are absorbed and digested quickly. Excess glucose can cause insulin levels to spike, which can raise the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Those risks also rise when people consume too much fructose, which can overload the liver. Excess fructose is converted to fat and dumped into the bloodstream. Coffee, tea, and flavored (unsweetened) water are healthier beverage choices. (Locked) More »

Answers to the top questions about cannabis extract

Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating plant chemical that comes from hemp or marijuana. It is used to help reduce symptoms of many conditions, including anxiety, bipolar disorder, arthritis, diabetes, a muscle disorder called dystonia, seizures, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, Crohn’s disease, chronic pain, post-traumatic stress disorder, and insomnia. CBD is considered generally safe and well tolerated, though it’s not clear yet how much CBD is safe and for how long, or if it is safe specifically for older adults. CBD has some known side effects and drug interactions. (Locked) More »

Prescription-strength omega-3 fatty acids to prevent heart disease?

A prescription drug called icosapent ethyl (Vascepa) that contains large doses of EPA (an omega-3 fatty acid found in fish oil) lowers high blood levels of triglycerides. For some people, it also may reduce heart attacks, strokes, and related events. Triglycerides, a type of fat in the blood, have been getting more attention of late for their role in heart disease. But the heart-protecting benefits of icosapent ethyl may also arise from calming inflammation, making blood less likely to clot, and preventing dangerous heart rhythms. (Locked) More »