Millions of women experience pain before, during, or after sexual intercourse—a medical condition called dyspareunia. This common problem can sap sexual desire and pleasure, strain relationships, and erode a woman's quality of life. For postmenopausal women, in particular, it can bring up issues of aging and body image. Many women suffer in silence because they're embarrassed or can't find a doctor who specializes in problems of this nature. The May 2012 issue of the Harvard Women's Health Watch describes how dyspareunia can be treated, and guides women to get the help they need.
Painful intercourse has many possible causes, including hormonal changes, medical and nerve conditions, skin diseases, and emotional problems such as anxiety and depression. Often, several are at work. The decline in estrogen production at menopause can thin vaginal tissue, resulting in dryness, burning, and pain. Another culprit is vestibulodynia, a chronic pain syndrome that causes discomfort with any kind of touch or pressure in the area around the vagina. Psychological factors may be involved, especially in women who associate the vaginal area with fear or injury.
Treatment often requires a multifaceted approach that includes medications and other therapies as well as self-care practices. These are some frequently prescribed strategies for managing dyspareunia:
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