Your Immune System

Your Immune System Articles

Antibiotic resistance and the dangers of superbugs

The bacteria that cause disease are remarkably resilient and can develop ways to evade the drugs meant to kill or weaken them. This phenomenon is called antibiotic resistance and it is due largely to the growing, and often careless, use of antibiotics. Today, bacterial infections in the United States and throughout the world are becoming resistant to the drugs we rely on to treat them. Antibiotic resistance has been called one of the world's most pressing public health problems. The smart use of antibiotics is the key to controlling the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria and the rise of superbugs—bacteria that cause infections that are difficult if not impossible to treat. More »

Kaposi's sarcoma

Kaposi's sarcoma is a type of cancer caused by the human herpes virus 8. It appears as red or purple patches on the skin, mouth, lungs, liver, or digestive system. Kaposi's sarcoma was a rare and relatively harmless disease until the AIDS epidemic began. An aggressive form of the disease, AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, occurs in people with severely weakened immune systems. It is now the most common type of Kaposi's sarcoma. There are four main types of Kaposi's sarcoma: More »

Leukemia

Leukemia is a type of cancer that harms the body's ability to make healthy blood cells. It starts in the bone marrow, the soft center of various bones. This is where new blood cells are made. There are three main types of blood cells: Leukemia usually refers to cancer of the white blood cells. It tends to affect one of the two major types of white blood cells: lymphocytes and granulocytes. These cells circulate through the bloodstream and the lymph system to help the body fight off viruses, infections, and other invading organisms. Leukemia arising from cancerous lymphocytes is called lymphocytic leukemia; leukemia from cancerous granulocytes is called myeloid or myelogenous leukemia. Leukemia is either acute (comes on suddenly) or chronic (lasts a long time). Acute leukemia affects adults and children. Chronic leukemia rarely affects children. More »

How does cold weather affect your health?

Cold weather brings a number of health risks for older adults. Close indoor contact with other people puts one at risk for cold and flu. Prolonged exposure to even mild cold puts one at risk for hypothermia. A lack of moisture in the air can make skin dry. And cold weather, which can narrow blood vessels, can increase the risk of heart attack. To fight back against these risks, people can wash their hands frequently, bundle up when going outdoors, use an oil-based skin lotion, shower in lukewarm water, and avoid intense outdoor activity. More »

Vaccinations: Myth vs. reality

Vaccines are just as important for preventing disease now that we’re older as they were when we were children. Yet many older adults fail to get the vaccines they need to protect themselves against diseases such as the flu, pneumonia, and shingles. More »

When You Visit Your Doctor - After Hodgkin's Disease Treatment

Have you had fevers, heavy sweating at night, weight loss, itchy skin, or swollen lymph nodes? Do you have pain in any of your bones? Do you have a cough? Are you fatigued? Do you get lightheaded? Do you bruise easily or have nosebleeds? Do your gums bleed when you brush your teeth? Have you had any recent infections? Do you have a cough? Do you have sinus congestion? Do you have nasal discharge? Do you know when to seek medical attention for signs of infection? Do you know that you still need to practice birth control (both men and women)? Infertility is uncommon with newer chemotherapy regimens. If you are a woman and have undergone early menopause, have you considered hormone replacement therapy? Are you short of breath at rest or with minimal exertion? Do you get chest pain or pressure with exertion? Do you have swelling in your legs? Do you know that chemotherapy and radiation can increase your risk of developing certain other cancers? Are you up-to-date on all of your cancer screening tests? If you are a woman, have you discussed the need for regular mammograms and breast examinations with your doctor? Are you gaining weight? Are you constipated? Are you always cold? Do you have dry skin? Neck veins Heart Lungs Abdomen (for enlargement or tenderness of the liver or spleen) Bones and spine (looking for areas of tenderness) Skin (looking for skin cancers) Lymph Nodes (neck, axilla, elbow, groin) Blood tests for complete blood counts, kidney and liver function tests CT scans of the chest and abdomen   More »

Understanding Infections

If you've been taking vitamin E supplements, you're not alone. The positive results of early studies on the antioxidant led many to take it in hopes of preventing or slowing everything from respiratory infections to macular degeneration. But what proves hopeful in early, preliminary studies doesn't always pan out in larger research settings, and vitamin E is a case in point. Age- Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the breakdown of cells of the macula, the small part of the eye that allows us to see things sharply and in color. Little is known about what causes AMD, which is the leading source of vision loss in people older than 55. Early observational studies showed vitamin E might help prevent macular degeneration. To test this theory, researchers recruited close to 1,200 participants between the ages of 55 and 80 to receive either a daily vitamin E supplement or a placebo for four years. Participants underwent annual eye exams to detect signs of development or progression of AMD and changes in visual function. More »