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Blepharitis is an inflammation of the eyelids that involves the edges of the eyelids and eyelash hair follicles. Blepharitis is a common and sometimes long-lasting condition that usual affects adults, but also can occur in children.
People with skin conditions such as rosacea, seborrhea, oily skin, dandruff or dry eyes are more likely to get this condition.
Blepharitis can be triggered by bacterial infections or by the eyelid glands making too much oil. This condition is not contagious.
Crossed eyes, also called strabismus, occurs when the eyes appear to be misaligned and point in different directions. Strabismus can occur at any age, but is most common in infants and young children. It can be seen in up to 5 percent of children, affecting boys and girls equally.
Strabismus can occur part of the time (intermittent) or all of the time (constant). Intermittent strabismus may worsen when the eye muscles are tired — late in the day, for example, or during an illness. Parents may notice their infant's eyes wandering from time to time during the first few months of life, especially when the infant is tired. This occurs because the infant is still learning to focus his or her eyes and to move them together. Most babies outgrow this intermittent strabismus by the age of 3 months.
Strabismus can be caused by problems with the eye muscles, with the nerves that control the eye muscles or with the brain, where the signals for vision are processed. Strabismus can accompany some illnesses such as diabetes, high blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis or thyroid disorders.
Strabismus is classified according to the direction of misalignment. When one eye is looking straight ahead, the other eye may turn inward toward the nose (esotropia or convergent), outward toward the ear (exotropia or divergent), downward (hypotropia) or upward (hypertropia).
Papilledema is the swelling of the optic nerve as it enters the back of the eye due to raised intracranial pressure. Fluid surrounding the brain is constantly produced and reabsorbed, maintaining just enough intracranial pressure to help protect the brain if there is blunt head trauma.
When you have a headache or unexplained nausea and vomiting, your doctor will look into your eye with an ophthalmoscope. This handheld instrument shines a bright light into your eye. Changes in the appearance of the optic nerve and the blood vessels that pass through it can be seen through the ophthalmoscope and might be related to the source of your symptoms.
Eyes can be damaged by solid, liquid, powder or aerosol chemicals. Chemical injuries that happen in the home are most likely to be caused by soaps, disinfectants, solvents, cosmetics, drain cleaners, oven cleaners, ammonia and bleach. In agricultural settings, fertilizers or pesticides can cause eye damage. In industry, many irritating chemicals and solvents can injure the eye.
Endophthalmitis is an inflammation of the inside of the eye. Inflammation affects the vitreous fluid in center of the eye. Vitreous fluid is a clear, gel-like substance. The inflammation can extend to surrounding tissues responsible for vision. Endophthalmitis is rare.
In most cases, an infection triggers this inflammation. The infection can be caused by:
In the United States, most cases result from bacterial infections that follow eye surgery. For example, the condition may follow a procedure to treat cataracts or glaucoma. Bacteria also can enter the eye through an injury that pierces the eye.
Less often, an infection from elsewhere in the body can travel to the eye through the blood.