Stroke

Brain cells need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. They are delivered by a network of blood vessels that reach every part of the brain. When something cuts off that supply, brain cells downstream begin to die. The injury that follows is called a stroke.

Most strokes strike when a blood clot becomes lodged in one of the brain's arteries, blocking blood flow. In some cases, the clot forms inside the artery, usually because a cholesterol-filled plaque inside the artery breaks open. This is called a thrombotic stroke. In other cases, a blood clot or a solid mass of debris that originates elsewhere travels to the brain, where it blocks a brain artery. This is called an embolic stroke. A third type of stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, occurs when a blood vessel in the brain bursts.

Since different areas of the brain are responsible for different functions, symptoms of stroke vary. They can be changes in sensation, movement, sight, speech, balance, and coordination. Sometimes a stroke is preceded by one or more transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). These are brief episodes of stroke-like symptoms that last for a few minutes — or possibly up to 24 hours — but that go away on their own.

If you think that you, or someone you are with, is having a stroke, call 911 right away. The sooner you call, the sooner treatment can begin — "time is brain," as emergency room doctors say. The type of treatment depends on the type of stroke that has occurred. If the brain's blood supply is restored quickly and completely, a full recovery with little or no disability is possible. The more widespread the damage, and the greater delay of treatment, the more severe and long-lasting the damage.

Recovery after a stroke depends on how well healthy areas of the brain take over duties that had been performed by the damaged brain tissue. To some extent, especially in children and young adults, recovery is possible because of the brain's ability to compensate for damage in one area by working harder in another — by relying on alternate wiring for some functions or by rewiring around the injured site. When such rewiring isn't possible, rehabilitation techniques can help the brain recover function.

Stroke Articles

When a stroke strikes

Updated stroke treatment guidelines suggest that more people who experience strokes caused by a clot in a large blood vessel may qualify for a clot-retrieving procedure. The change may prevent or limit brain damage from these devastating events. However, people must meet strict criteria to receive the clot-retrieval therapy, and there is a shortage of specialists trained to perform the procedure. (Locked) More »

To eat less salt, enjoy the spice of life

People who like spicy foods appear to eat less salt and have lower blood pressure than people who prefer less-spicy foods. Adding even small amounts of spice to food may help people eat less salt, which may benefit their health. More »

After a stroke with no clear cause, a heart repair may be in order

A patent foramen ovale (PFO), a small opening between the heart’s right and left upper chambers, is common in people who have strokes with no clear cause. For them, a procedure to close the PFO lowers their chance of stroke more than drug therapy. Normally, the network of blood vessels in the lungs traps and destroys small clots and other debris moving through the bloodstream. But if a clot bypasses the lungs by taking a shortcut through a PFO, it may lodge in a brain blood vessel, resulting in a stroke. To close a PFO, a doctor threads a catheter though a vein in the upper leg to the heart to insert a device that plugs the opening. (Locked) More »

Weighing the risks and benefits of aspirin therapy

Aspirin therapy is typically prescribed to people who have atherosclerosis of the arteries of the heart or brain, or risk factors for such disease. Just who should take a daily aspirin, how much aspirin, and what type of aspirin are hotly debated issues. As a preventive therapy, aspirin may be prescribed for people who don’t have evidence of cardiovascular disease but do have one or more risk factors, such as high cholesterol or diabetes. However, that is also debated. (Locked) More »

Women’s stroke rate stubbornly steady

A recent study found that while the stroke rate among men has dropped in recent years, the risk for women has stayed the same. While men may be benefiting from prevention and treatment efforts for high blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes, women do not seem to be reaping the same benefits. This may reflect some risk factors specific to women that should be given additional attention. (Locked) More »

A salad a day keeps stroke away?

Eating plenty of nitrate-rich vegetables—such as lettuce, spinach, and beets—may lower a person’s risk of dying of a stroke or heart attack. The body converts nitrates into nitric oxide, a compound that lowers blood pressure. More »