Stroke

Brain cells need a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients. They are delivered by a network of blood vessels that reach every part of the brain. When something cuts off that supply, brain cells downstream begin to die. The injury that follows is called a stroke.

Most strokes strike when a blood clot becomes lodged in one of the brain's arteries, blocking blood flow. In some cases, the clot forms inside the artery, usually because a cholesterol-filled plaque inside the artery breaks open. This is called a thrombotic stroke. In other cases, a blood clot or a solid mass of debris that originates elsewhere travels to the brain, where it blocks a brain artery. This is called an embolic stroke. A third type of stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, occurs when a blood vessel in the brain bursts.

Since different areas of the brain are responsible for different functions, symptoms of stroke vary. They can be changes in sensation, movement, sight, speech, balance, and coordination. Sometimes a stroke is preceded by one or more transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). These are brief episodes of stroke-like symptoms that last for a few minutes — or possibly up to 24 hours — but that go away on their own.

If you think that you, or someone you are with, is having a stroke, call 911 right away. The sooner you call, the sooner treatment can begin — "time is brain," as emergency room doctors say. The type of treatment depends on the type of stroke that has occurred. If the brain's blood supply is restored quickly and completely, a full recovery with little or no disability is possible. The more widespread the damage, and the greater delay of treatment, the more severe and long-lasting the damage.

Recovery after a stroke depends on how well healthy areas of the brain take over duties that had been performed by the damaged brain tissue. To some extent, especially in children and young adults, recovery is possible because of the brain's ability to compensate for damage in one area by working harder in another — by relying on alternate wiring for some functions or by rewiring around the injured site. When such rewiring isn't possible, rehabilitation techniques can help the brain recover function.

Stroke Articles

Health by the numbers

New research has found that fluctuations in four health-related parameters—weight, blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood sugar levels—may be associated with a higher risk of heart attacks, stroke, and premature death compared with more stable readings. Being more mindful about personal health numbers, and making necessary lifestyle and medical changes as necessary, can help people avoid possible health risks. (Locked) More »

A more personalized approach to treating high cholesterol

Nearly one in three American adults has high levels of LDL, the most harmful type of cholesterol. The 2018 cholesterol treatment guidelines now take a more personalized approach on the best way to manage this common problem. As in the past, the new guidelines recommend an LDL-lowering statin drug for anyone who has already had a heart attack or (in most cases) a stroke. Adults ages 40 t0 75 who don’t have heart disease but who have diabetes and an LDL of 70 or higher should take a statin; so should anyone with an extremely high LDL (190 mg/dL or higher). (Locked) More »

Avoiding atherosclerosis: The killer you can't see

Following healthy lifestyle habits is the foundation for atherosclerosis risk reduction. Such habits include eating a healthy diet, exercising, quitting smoking, and controlling underlying conditions such as high blood pressure. People who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease or who have already had a heart attack, stroke, or the diagnosis of angina or peripheral artery disease may need to take a medication called a statin to try to fend off cholesterol buildup in the arteries and shrink plaques. (Locked) More »

Past trauma may haunt your future health

People who have experienced traumatic events are at higher risk for a number of chronic conditions, including heart disease. Risk is particularly high for those who experienced multiple adverse childhood events. Therapy can help people move past trauma and improve their health. More »

Certain pain relievers could harm your heart

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and naproxen, have been linked to higher cardiovascular risks. A new study seems to confirm the risks of these medications and shows that one particular NSAID, diclofenac (Voltaren), may bring higher risks than other medications in this class. For most people who take these medications for short periods of time, the risks aren’t a major concern, but people who take these drugs long-term and have other heart risk factors should discuss the pros and cons with their doctor. (Locked) More »

The head-heart connection: Mental health and heart disease

People with high levels of psychological distress, including symptoms of anxiety and depression, may be more likely to have a heart attack or a stroke. Mood disorders and heart disease may have shared, underlying causes that begin even before birth that are carried throughout life. A fetus exposed to its mother’s immune or inflammatory responses may experience changes that affect specific brain regions that regulate both mood and cardiac function. (Locked) More »