In the time it takes to count to 10, more than 60 women become pregnant around the world. Pregnancy is normally a 40-week journey, usually measured from the date of a woman's last menstrual period to the birth of her baby. It's a time of rapid development for the soon-to-be-baby, and sometime bewildering changes for the mother.

Pregnancy is divided into three periods, known as trimesters. Each lasts about 13 weeks. The trimesters are roughly equivalent to specific developmental stages.

First trimester: A baby's body and organ systems begin their initial development. This is the period during which most miscarriages and birth defects occur. It is also when women tend to experience morning sickness, fatigue, and other pregnancy-related symptoms. By the end of the first trimester, the average fetus is 3 inches long and weighs about an ounce.

Second trimester: During the second trimester, a baby grows skin and hair, and even develops fingerprints. A heartbeat can be heard with a stethoscope. For moms, morning sickness tends to fade, and sleep improves. But other problems, such as back pain, leg cramps, and heartburn, may appear. The baby's first movements are usually felt during the second trimester. By its end, the average baby is about 14 inches long and weighs more than 2 pounds. Babies delivered at the end of the second trimester may be able to survive with the help of medical technology.

Third trimester: The final stretch for baby and mother. It's a time of rapid growth and maturation for the baby. Toward the end of the third trimester, the baby usually moves into the "head down" position in preparation for birth. At 38 weeks, the baby is considered full term and can make its appearance at any time. Because the baby is getting so big, a mom can experience shortness of breath, hemorrhoids, and trouble sleeping. Toward the end of the third trimester, the average baby is 19 to 21 inches long and weighs between 6 and 10 pounds.

Pregnancy Articles

Female Infertility

For a man and a woman who are having frequent intercourse without using any birth control, the average amount of time that it takes to conceive is six months. Most couples are able to achieve a pregnancy within one year if they have intercourse frequently (twice per week or more often). Between 10% and 15% of couples will continue to have difficulty conceiving after one year of trying. When pregnancy is this slow to occur, the man and woman are diagnosed as infertile. Infertility can be caused by health problems in the man, the woman or both partners. In some infertile couples, no cause can be found to explain the problem. In approximately 20% of couples, more than one cause of the infertility is found. The cause of infertility occurs about as often in men as in women. Normal aging reduces a woman's ability to become pregnant. Ovulation, the process of forming and releasing an egg, becomes slower and less effective. Aging begins to reduce fertility as early as age 30, and pregnancy rates are very low after age 44, even when fertility medications are used. Even though fertility is less reliable for women of older ages, approximately 20% of women in the United States have their first child at or after age 35. (Locked) More »

Depression during pregnancy and after

For too many women, joyfully anticipated pregnancy and motherhood bring depression as an unexpected accompaniment. Children as well as mothers suffer. Depression during pregnancy may result in poor prenatal care, premature delivery, low birth weight, and, just possibly, depression in the child. Depression after childbirth (postpartum depression) can lead to child neglect, family breakdown, and suicide. A depressed mother may fail to bond emotionally with her newborn, raising the child's risk of later cognitive delays and emotional and behavior problems. Fortunately, if the depression is detected soon enough, help is available for mother and child. Depression in pregnant women is often overlooked, partly because of a widespread misconception that pregnancy somehow provides protection against mood disorders. In reality, almost 25% of cases of postpartum depression in womem start during pregnancy, and depression may peak at that time, according to a study published in the British Medical Journal. More than 9,000 women recorded their moods during the fourth and eighth month of pregnancy and again two and eight months after giving birth. The questionnaire, which was specially designed for pregnant women and new mothers, concentrated on thoughts and feelings—emotional swings, crying spells, low self-esteem, hopelessness, irritability, and inability to enjoy normally pleasurable activities. The researchers paid less attention to physical symptoms, because they did not want to mistake physical effects of pregnancy (such as appetite loss, fatigue, and insomnia) for symptoms of depression. Depression ratings were highest at the eighth month of pregnancy and lowest eight months after childbirth. Fourteen percent of the women scored above the threshold for probable clinical depression just before the child's birth, compared with 9% two months later. More »