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Behçet's (bay-setz) syndrome is a rare disease that causes inflammation of many parts of the body. These include the skin of the genital area, lining of the mouth, eye, nervous system, joints and blood vessels. The most characteristic problems include ulcers in the mouth and genital areas, and serious eye inflammation. It is also called Behçet's syndrome.
The exact cause of the disease remains unclear. But Behçet's disease is thought to involve an autoimmune response. This means the body's defense mechanism begins to attack its own tissues. Something in the environment may trigger this abnormal immune response in susceptible individuals. Genetic factors may also play a role.
Frostbite is the freezing of body tissues (skin, muscle, bone) in extreme cold. At or below 59 degrees Fahrenheit, blood vessels close to the skin start to narrow (constrict). This helps to preserve your core body temperature. In extreme cold or when the body is exposed to cold for long periods, this protective strategy can reduce blood flow in some areas of your body to dangerously low levels. The combination of cold temperature and poor blood flow can cause tissue injury. Frostbite is most likely to happen in body parts farthest from the heart, and those with a lot of surface area exposed to cold. These areas include the toes, fingers, ears and nose.
Body tissue will not freeze until the outside temperature is at or below 28 degrees Fahrenheit. If areas of tissue exposed to extreme cold begin to freeze, ice crystals form in some cells and fluid flows into these cells. This can cause the cells to burst. Additional damage can occur when the tissue is warmed again, because damaged blood vessels can leak fluid and proteins into tissue, causing swelling and blistering.
Frostbite ranges from the superficial freezing of the topmost layers of skin, which is called frostnip, to severe frostbite that affects deeper tissues, such as muscles and bones. The amount of damage depends on several factors besides the cold temperature, including altitude, wind chill, blood circulation and body composition. Factors that increase your risk of frostbite include:
Impaired thinking (from psychiatric problems, medical illness or substance abuse)
Older age, especially if you already have circulation problems
Contact with metal
Large areas of exposed skin
Previous frostbite or other injury caused by cold
A low percentage of body fat
Wearing tight clothes, which impairs circulation
Drinking alcohol, which increases loss of body heat
Drinking caffeine, which increases dehydration
Using nicotine, which decreases blood flow to your limbs
Poorly controlled diabetes
Heel pain is a common symptom that has many possible causes. Although heel pain sometimes is caused by a systemic (body-wide) illness, such as rheumatoid arthritis or gout, it usually is a local condition that affects only the foot.
Shin splints are injuries that commonly occur in runners. They cause pain along the inner side of the shinbone (tibia).
Shin splints develop because of overuse of the posterior tibialis muscle in the lower leg near the shin. In most cases, this overuse is related to a sudden increase in the intensity of an athlete's training program — suddenly running faster, farther or for longer periods than before. When shin splints first appear, the leg pain tends to start near the end of a training session. However, if the athlete ignores the pain tries to "run through it," symptoms eventually will begin earlier and earlier during training, until they affect the athlete's overall performance.
Although shin splints are most common in runners, they also can occur in basketball players, soccer players and other athletes in sports that require periods of intense or prolonged running. Even walkers are at risk if they walk too fast or too far.
When a bone breaks or cracks, the injury is called a fracture. In the collarbone (clavicle), fractures can happen in three separate areas:
The outer third of the collarbone is near the tip of the shoulder. Fractures here usually are caused by an accidental fall or some other type of direct impact (football tackle, hockey check, car collision) that transmits force to the side or top of the shoulder. Fractures in this area account for about 15% of all collarbone fractures.
About 80% of all collarbone fractures occur in the middle third of the bone. A fracture here usually is related to a fall on an outstretched arm. This area also can be fractured by a direct impact to the middle of the collarbone, especially during stick sports, such as hockey or lacrosse.
The third nearest the breastbone rarely fractures. Fractures in this part of the collarbone almost always are caused by a direct blow to the front of the chest, often from a steering wheel impact during a car crash.
A shoulder sprain is a tear of shoulder ligaments, the tough bands of fibrous tissue that connect bones to one another inside or around the shoulder joint. Although most people think of the shoulder as a single joint between the upper arm bone (humerus) and the torso, the shoulder actually has several smaller joints outside the arm bone's socket. Ligaments connect the four bones that are important to the shoulder's function.
A sprain that tears ligaments in the shoulder most often occurs at the joint between the acromion and collarbone, called the acromioclavicular joint. This injury sometimes is called a shoulder separation. Less often, a shoulder sprain involves the joint between the breastbone and collarbone, called the sternoclavicular joint. This joint is within an inch of the midline of the chest. Many people would not guess that it's part of the shoulder.
An infection inside the tip of the finger can form an enclosed pocket of pus (or abscess) that is very painful as it expands. A felon is a fingertip abscess deep in the palm side of the finger. It usually is caused by bacterial infection, but a herpes virus called herpetic whitlow and, more rarely, fungi also can cause felons.
In a normal hip joint, the rounded top of the thigh bone (femur) fits into a cup-shaped socket in the pelvis called the acetabulum. This type of joint is called a ball-and-socket joint.
In developmental dysplasia of the hip, the top of the femur moves in and out of the socket either part way or all the way. When it moves all the way out of the socket, it is called a dislocation. This happens when the ligaments that hold the two bones together are very loose or because the cup-shaped socket is not deep enough.
This condition usually is present at birth. But it can develop during infancy or childhood.
If the bones in the joint are not in the right place, the hip and femur can't grow normally. This can lead to:
A shortened leg
Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a collection of symptoms that many women experience during the one to two weeks before a menstrual period. These symptoms may be physical, psychological and emotional. They disappear soon after the start of menstrual bleeding.
Do you have a history of chicken pox?
Does your skin hurt, itch, or feel numb?
Is the pain sharp, dull, or piercing? How long have you had it?
Do you have a rash? If so, for how long?
Is the rash in more than one place on your skin?
Is the rash on one side of your body only?
Has the rash at any time looked like small blisters?
Do you still have pain even if the rash is gone?
What triggers the pain (for example, a light touch)?
Do your symptoms interfere with your ability to sleep or perform activities of daily living?
Do you have any risk factors for infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?
Are you taking any medications?
Careful skin exam
Skin scraping to examine under the microscope, or for viral culture, immunofluorescence, or polymerase chain reaction testing