Other Cancers

Other Cancers Articles

Adenocarcinoma of the Lung

Adenocarcinoma of the lung is a type of lung cancer. It occurs when abnormal lung cells multiply out of control and form a tumor. Eventually, tumor cells can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body including the lymph nodes around and between the lungs liver bones adrenal glands brain. Compared with other types of lung cancer, adenocarcinoma is more likely to be contained in one area. If it is truly localized, it may respond to treatment better than other lung cancers. Adenocarcinoma is the most common form of lung cancer. It's generally found in smokers. However, it is the most common type of lung cancer in nonsmokers. It is also the most common form of lung cancer in women and people younger than 45. As with other forms of lung cancer, your risk of adenocarcinoma increases if you smoke. Smoking cigarettes is by far the leading risk factor for lung cancer. In fact, cigarette smokers are 13 times more likely to develop lung cancer than nonsmokers. Cigar and pipe smoking are almost as likely to cause lung cancer as cigarette smoking. breathe tobacco smoke. Nonsmokers who inhale fumes from cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking have an increased risk of lung cancer. are exposed to radon gas. Radon is a colorless, odorless radioactive gas formed in the ground. It seeps into the lower floors of homes and other buildings and can contaminate drinking water. Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer. It's not clear whether elevated radon levels contribute to lung cancer in nonsmokers. But radon exposure does contribute to increased rates of lung cancer in smokers and in people who regularly breathe high amounts of the gas (miners, for example). You can test radon levels in your home with a radon testing kit. are exposed to asbestos. Asbestos is a mineral used in insulation, fireproofing materials, floor and ceiling tiles, automobile brake linings, and other products. People exposed to asbestos on the job (miners, construction workers, shipyard workers, and some auto mechanics) have a higher-than-normal risk of lung cancer. People who live or work in buildings with asbestos-containing materials that are deteriorating also have an increased risk of lung cancer. In addition to having a higher risk of adenocarcinoma, people who have been exposed to asbestos have a greater risk of developing mesothelioma. This is a type of cancer that starts in the tissue surrounding the lungs. are exposed to other cancer-causing agents at work. These include uranium, arsenic, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust. (Locked) More »

Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumors

Extragonadal germ cell tumors are made up of cells that form during the early development of a fetus (unborn baby). In a growing fetus, germ cells typically move from a site near the middle of the body to the ovaries or testes (gonads). There they develop into eggs in females and sperm in males. When cells that are meant to form sperm or eggs travel to other parts of the body instead, they can form tumors outside the gonads. That's why they are often called extragonadal germ cell tumors. They usually begin in the lungs, the lower back, the back of the abdomen, or the middle of the brain, near the pea-sized pineal gland. Extragonadal germ cell tumors (EGCTs) are rare. EGCTs are classified as seminomas or nonseminomas (of which there are several subtypes). In children, EGCTs affect boys and girls equally. But in adults, the vast majority of these tumors affect men. The cells of each type of tumor look different under a microscope. Also, each has a different prognosis and treatment. Seminomas tend to be very responsive to radiation therapy, making that the mainstay for treatment. Chemotherapy is often used treat nonseminomas, but it may be used to treat seminomas as well. (Locked) More »

Head and Neck Cancer

Head and neck cancer begins with the abnormal growth of cells. These cells multiply out of control, eventually forming a tumor in part of the head or neck. As the tumor grows, it can form a lump, a sore, or an abnormal patch of white or discolored tissue. Without treatment, the tumor can invade and destroy nearby bones and soft tissues. Eventually, it can spread (metastasize) to lymph nodes in the neck and to other parts of the body. In many cases, head and neck cancers are triggered by carcinogens. These are substances that cause cancer. Common carcinogens include tobacco smoke, smokeless (chewing) tobacco, and snuff. Chronic or heavy alcohol use also contributes to head and neck cancer. The disease is especially prevalent in those who both use tobacco and drink alcohol. The human papilloma virus (HPV), which causes cervical cancer in women, has been linked to a growing number of throat cancers in men. Although a cause and effect relationship has not been proven, oral sex may be to blame for the transmission of HPV. Head and neck cancers are classified based on where they are found: Upper aerodigestive tract — This includes the lips, tongue, mouth, throat, and voice box (larynx). Of all head and neck cancers, those involving the upper aerodigestive tract are the most common. Almost all cancers in this part of the head are squamous cell carcinomas, which arise from cells that line structures in the head and neck. Squamous cell carcinomas can also occur on the skin of the head and neck, but they are not considered to be skin cancer. Upper aerodigestive tract cancers are more common in people over age 45. Men are affected two to four times more often than women. Most of these cancers are related to tobacco use. Alcohol increases the risk, especially when it's used heavily and constantly. More and more cases of throat cancer in men have been tied to HPV. Salivary glands — Salivary gland cancer is rare and varies in aggressiveness. Exposure to radiation increases the risk of this type of cancer. Smoking may play a role in certain types of salivary gland cancer. People who have had chronic salivary gland stones and inflammation of the salivary glands may be more prone to this disease. Nasopharynx — The nasopharynx is the upper portion of the back of the throat, where the throat meets the back of the nasal cavity. Unlike other head and neck cancers, this one is not associated with tobacco or alcohol use. In the United States, nasopharyngeal cancer has not been associated with any particular cause. But in parts of northern Africa, Asia, and the Arctic, where this cancer is more common, it has been linked to infection with the Epstein-Barr virus, the cause of infectious mononucleosis; eating Cantonese salted fish; high exposure to dust and smoke; and eating a lot of fermented foods. Sinuses and nasal cavity — About three-quarters of cancers found in the sinuses (behind the bones of the forehead and cheeks and inside the nose) are squamous cell carcinomas. Rarely, other types of cancer occur in this area. In many cases, these cancers grow fairly large before they are diagnosed. This is because the tumors have room to grow before they block the sinuses or nasal passages or cause other symptoms. (Locked) More »

Lung Cancer Overview

One of the most common cancers, lung cancer usually occurs when a cancer-causing agent, or carcinogen, triggers the growth of abnormal cells in the lung. These cells multiply out of control and eventually form a tumor. As the tumor grows, it destroys nearby areas of the lung. Eventually, tumor cells can spread (metastasize) to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body. These include the liver bones adrenal glands brain. In most cases, the carcinogens that trigger lung cancer are chemicals found in cigarette smoke. However, more and more lung cancers are being diagnosed in people who have never smoked. (Locked) More »

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung is a type of lung cancer. It occurs when abnormal lung cells multiply out of control and form a tumor. Eventually, tumor cells can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body including the lymph nodes around and between the lungs liver bones adrenal glands brain. In general, there are two categories of lung cancer: small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. The cancer cells in each type look different under the microscope. They are also treated differently. The prognosis for non-small cell lung cancer tends to be better than for small cell lung cancer; non-small cell lung cancers are more likely to be contained in one area, making treatment more likely to be successful. Squamous cell carcinoma is one type of non-small cell lung cancer. The others are adenocarcinoma large cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma is the second-most common type. It accounts for about 30% of all cases of non-small cell lung caner. Your risk of all types of lung cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma, increase if you smoke. Smoking cigarettes is by far the leading risk factor for lung cancer. In fact, cigarette smokers are 13 times more likely to develop lung cancer than nonsmokers. Cigar and pipe smoking are almost as likely to cause lung cancer as cigarette smoking. breathe tobacco smoke. Nonsmokers who inhale fumes from cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking have an increased risk of lung cancer. are exposed to radon gas. Radon is a colorless, odorless radioactive gas formed in the ground. It seeps into the lower floors of homes and other buildings and can contaminate drinking water. Radon exposure is the second leading cause of lung cancer. It's not clear whether elevated radon levels contribute to lung cancer in nonsmokers. But radon exposure does contribute to lung cancer in smokers and in people who regularly breathe high amounts of the gas at work (miners, for example). You can test radon levels in your home with a radon testing kit. are exposed to asbestos. Asbestos is a mineral used in insulation, fireproofing materials, floor and ceiling tiles, automobile brake linings, and other products. People exposed to asbestos on the job (miners, construction workers, shipyard workers, and some auto mechanics) have a higher-than-normal risk of lung cancer. People who live or work in buildings with asbestos-containing materials that are deteriorating also have an increased risk of lung cancer. The risk is even higher in people who also smoke. Asbestos exposure also increases the risk of developing mesothelioma, a relatively rare and usually fatal cancer. It usually starts in the chest and resembles lung cancer. are exposed to other cancer-causing agents at work. These include uranium, arsenic, vinyl chloride, nickel chromates, coal products, mustard gas, chloromethyl ethers, gasoline, and diesel exhaust.   (Locked) More »

Esophageal Cancer

Esophageal cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that carries food and liquid to your stomach. There are two types of esophageal cancer: Squamous cell carcinoma starts in the cells that line the esophagus. These cells are called squamous cells. This type of cancer can occur anywhere in the esophagus. Adenocarcinoma starts in the lower portion of the esophagus, near the opening to the stomach. It begins when squamous cells are replaced by glandular cells that then begin growing abnormally. (Locked) More »

Neurofibromatosis

Neurofibromatosis (NF) is nervous system disease that causes skin defects and tumors on nerve tissues. It can also lead to other problems. The condition usually worsens over time. Although there is no known cure, treatment can help control symptoms. The nerve tissue tumors begin in cells that protect nerves. These tumors can vary in size and occur anywhere in the body, including the skin, inner ear, brain, and spinal cord. Most are not cancerous, although some may turn cancerous over time. The most common type of tumor is called a neurofibroma. This is a noncancerous growth that usually develops on or under the skin. The other common type of tumor is called a Schwannoma. These growths form in cells that help insulate nerves. NF is a genetic disorder. Genetic disorders are caused by changes (mutations) in genes. They usually run in families. (Locked) More »

Carcinoid tumors of the lung

Carcinoid tumors have been called "cancers in slow motion" because they grow slowly. They are also less likely than other tumors to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. However, this is not always the case. Sometimes, they grow and spread rather quickly. Most carcinoid tumors start in the small intestine, but about 25% of them begin in the lungs. They account for only a small percentage of all lung cancers. Some carcinoid tumors, especially those arising from the gastrointestinal tract or the appendix, produce hormones that can cause a number of symptoms. Carcinoid tumors in the lung are much less likely to produce hormones. There are two types of carcinoid tumors of the lung: typical and atypical. Typical carcinoid tumors are about nine times more common than atypical carcinoid tumors. Typical carcinoid tumors are also less likely to spread beyond the lungs. Carcinoid tumors of the lung occur equally in women and men, usually between ages 45 and 55. (Locked) More »

Pancreatic Cancer

The pancreas (PAN-cree-us) is an organ that sits in the left side of your belly. The pancreas has two main functions. It makes digestive enzymes (proteins that break down food) and hormones that regulate blood sugar, such as insulin. Pancreatic (PAN-cree-at-ick) occurs when abnormal cells grow uncontrolled in the pancreas. Most pancreatic cancers occur in the part of the pancreas that produces digestive fluids. A small number of pancreatic cancers occur in a part of the pancreas that helps regulate blood sugar. It is very important that your doctor find out which kind of pancreatic cancer you have because the two types have different treatments. This article will focus on the first type, which is called adenocarcinoma (add-en-oh-car-cin-oh-mah). The problem with pancreatic cancer is that it usually spreads before any symptoms appear. Doctors aren't sure what causes pancreatic cancer, but they know it is more common in: smokers men people with diabetes African Americans People who have had surgery for stomach ulcers or who have had chronic inflammation of the pancreas are also more likely to develop this cancer. And this type of cancer may run in families.   (Locked) More »

When You Visit Your Doctor - Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)

Have you had fevers, chills, fatigue, or weight loss? Have you had any recent infections? Do you have a cough? Do you have sinus congestion? Do you know when to seek medical attention for infections? Do your gums bleed when you brush your teeth? Have you had nosebleeds or easy bruising? Do you get short of breath with minimal exertion? Are you lightheaded? Have you been unusually tired? Have you had abdominal pain or swelling? Have you noticed swollen lymph nodes? Lymph nodes (neck, axilla, groin) Heart Lungs Abdomen (for enlargement or tenderness of the liver or spleen) Complete blood count Routine blood chemistries Immunoglobulin levels Blood test for flow cytometry Bone marrow biopsy.   More »