Mental Health

Everyone feels worried or anxious or down from time to time. But relatively few people develop a mental illness. What's the difference? A mental illness is a mental health condition that gets in the way of thinking, relating to others, and day-to-day function.

Dozens of mental illnesses have been identified and defined. They include depression, generalized anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, and many more.

Mental illness is an equal opportunity issue. It affects young and old, male and female, and individuals of every race, ethnic background, education level, and income level. The good news is that it can often be treated.

Signs and symptoms of mental illness depend in part on the illness. Common symptoms include

  • feeling down for a while
  • extreme swings in mood
  • withdrawing from family, friends, or activities
  • low energy or problems sleeping
  • often feeling angry, hostile, or violent
  • feeling paranoid, hearing voices, or having hallucinations
  • often thinking about death or suicide.

In some people, symptoms of a mental illness first appear as physical problems such as stomach aches, back pain, or insomnia.

Individuals with a mental illness can often ease their symptoms and feel better by talking with a therapist and following a treatment plan that may or may not include medication.

Mental Health Articles

Bipolar Disorder (Manic Depressive Illness or Manic Depression)

Bipolar disorder, which used to be called manic depressive illness or manic depression, is a mental disorder characterized by wide mood swings from high (manic) to low (depressed). Periods of high or irritable mood are called manic episodes. The person becomes very active, but in a scattered and unproductive way, sometimes with painful or embarrassing consequences.  (Locked) More »

Borderline Personality Disorder

Borderline personality disorder is characterized by poor self-image, a feeling of emptiness, and great difficulty coping with being alone. People with this disorder have highly reactive and intense moods, and unstable relationships. Their behavior can be impulsive. They are also more likely than average to attempt or commit suicide. Sometimes, without intending to commit suicide, they harm themselves (for example, cutting or burning) as a form of self-punishment or to combat an empty feeling. When stressed, people with borderline personality disorder may develop psychotic-like symptoms. They experience a distortion of their perceptions or beliefs rather than a distinct break with reality. Especially in close relationships, they tend to misinterpret or amplify what other people feel about them. For example, they may assume a friend or family member is having extremely hateful feelings toward them, when the person may be only mildly annoyed or angry. (Locked) More »

Postpartum Depression

Postpartum refers to the period immediately after childbirth. When a woman has significant symptoms of depression during this period, she is said to have postpartum depression. Postpartum depression is not the same as the "baby blues," a much more common condition that affects as many as 85% of new mothers. New moms often are emotionally sensitive and tend to cry easily. The baby blues is uncomfortable, but usually doesn't interfere with functioning as a mother, and it almost always goes away within a few weeks. Postpartum depression is a different matter. It affects up to 15% of new mothers. It may begin at any time in the first two to three months after giving birth. The mother feels sad or hopeless and sometimes guilty or worthless. She is unable to concentrate and unable to take any interest in anything, even the baby. In some cases, the mother may feel overwhelmed by the baby's needs and become intensely anxious. This may lead to persistent troubling thoughts or obsessions about the baby's well-being and compulsive repetitive actions, such as checking on the baby constantly or phoning the pediatrician repeatedly to ask questions. (Locked) More »

Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Schizotypal personality disorder, like other personality disorders, is a long-standing pattern of behavior and experience. As part of that pattern, an individual either has difficulty functioning or experiences a great deal of distress. People with schizotypal personality disorder are loners who prefer to keep their distance from others and are uncomfortable being in relationships. They sometimes exhibit odd speech or behavior, and they have a limited or flat range of emotions. This pattern begins early in adulthood and continues throughout life.   (Locked) More »

Antisocial Personality Disorder

Antisocial personality disorder, like other personality disorders, is a longstanding pattern of behavior and experience that impairs functioning and causes distress. By definition, people with antisocial personality disorder don't follow society's norms, are deceitful and intimidating in relationships, and are inconsiderate of the rights of others. People with this type of personality may take part in criminal activity, but if they do, they are not sorry for their hurtful deeds. They can be impulsive, reckless and sometimes violent. This disorder is far more common and more apparent in men than women. People with antisocial personality disorder generally do not value "playing by the rules" -- they do so only if they are threatened with punishment. This attitude leads to a tendency to exploit others. They take advantage of the fairness or softheartedness of others, and they feel indifferent toward or even contemptuous of their victims. A person with this disorder has little, if any, ability to be intimate with another person. Any lasting relationships are likely to involve some degree of abuse or neglect. Yet people with this disorder are sometimes charming and can be good actors who use lies and distortion to keep relationships going. Some with antisocial personality disorder have no goal beyond the pleasure of deceiving or harming others. (Locked) More »

Hypochondriasis

Hypochondriasis is a persistent fear of having a serious medical illness. A person with this disorder tends to interpret normal sensations, bodily functions and mild symptoms as a sign of an illness with a grim outcome. For example, a person may fear that the normal sounds of digestion, sweating or a mark on the skin may be a sign of a serious disease. A person with hypochondriasis may be especially concerned about a particular organ system, such as the cardiac or digestive systems. A doctor's reassurance and even a complete medical evaluation often will not calm the person's fears. Or, if it does calm them, other worries may emerge days later. (Locked) More »

Delusional Disorder

Delusional disorder is classified as a psychotic disorder, a disorder where a person has trouble recognizing reality. A delusion is a false belief that is based on an incorrect interpretation of reality. Delusions, like all psychotic symptoms, can occur as part of many different psychiatric disorders. But the term delusional disorder is used when delusions are the most prominent symptom. A person with this illness holds a false belief firmly, despite clear evidence or proof to the contrary. Delusions may involve circumstances that could occur in reality even though they are unlikely (for example, the family next door plotting to kill you). Or they may be considered "bizarre" (for example, feeling controlled by an outside force or having thoughts inserted into your head). A religious or cultural belief that is accepted by other members of the person's community is not a delusion. There are several types of delusions: persecutory, erotic, grandiose, jealous or somatic (that is, delusions about the body). People with delusional disorder usually do not have hallucinations or a major problem with mood. Unlike people with schizophrenia, they tend not to have major problems with day-to-day functioning and they do not appear odd. When hallucinations do occur, they are part of the delusional belief. For example, someone who has the delusion that internal organs are rotting may hallucinate smells or sensations related to that delusion. If their functioning is impaired, it is usually a direct result of the delusion. Therefore, the disorder may be detected only by observing behavior that is a consequence of the belief. For example, a person who fears being murdered may quit a job or stay home with all the shades drawn, never venturing out. Since people with delusional disorder are aware that their beliefs are unique, they generally do not talk about them. Delusional disorder is diagnosed much less frequently than schizophrenia. (Locked) More »

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

In generalized anxiety disorder, a person has frequent or nearly constant, nagging feelings of worry or anxiety. These feelings are either unusually intense or out of proportion to the real troubles and dangers of the person's everyday life. The disorder is defined as persistent worry for more days than not, for at least several months. In some cases, a person with generalized anxiety disorder feels he or she has always been a worrier, even since childhood or adolescence. In other cases, the anxiety may be triggered by a crisis or a period of stress, such as a job loss, a family illness or the death of a relative. The crisis or stress may have ended, but an unexplained feeling of anxiety may last months or years. In addition to suffering from constant (or non-stop) worries and anxieties, people with generalized anxiety disorder may have low self-esteem or feel insecure because they see people's intentions or events in negative terms, or they experience them as intimidating or critical. Physical symptoms may lead them to seek treatment from a primary care doctor, cardiologist, pulmonary specialist or gastroenterologist. Stress can intensify the anxiety. Experts believe that some people with this disorder have a genetic (inherited) tendency to develop it. The disorder probably stems from how a variety of brain structures communicate with each other as they manage the fear response. Chemical messengers, gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) and serotonin, transmit signals along the circuits connecting brain regions. The medications used to treat anxiety affect these circuits. About 3% to 8% of people in the United States have generalized anxiety disorder. Women have the problem twice as often as men. The average adult patient first seeks professional help between the ages of 20 and 30. However, the illness can occur at any age. Generalized anxiety disorder also has been diagnosed in young children, teenagers and elderly people. The illness is the most common anxiety disorder affecting people age 65 and older. Of all psychiatric illnesses, generalized anxiety disorder is the least likely to occur alone. Between 50% and 90% of people with the disorder also have at least one other problem, usually panic disorder, a phobia, depression, dysthymia (a less severe form of depression), alcoholism or some other form of substance abuse. (Locked) More »

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a chronic (long-lasting) brain disorder that is easily misunderstood. Although symptoms may vary widely, people with schizophrenia frequently have a hard time recognizing reality, thinking logically and behaving naturally in social situations. Schizophrenia is surprisingly common, affecting 1 in every 100 people worldwide. Experts believe schizophrenia results from a combination of genetic and environmental causes. The chance of having schizophrenia is 10% if an immediate family member (a parent or sibling) has the illness. The risk is as high as 65% for those who have an identical twin with schizophrenia. Scientists have identified several genes that increase the risk of getting this illness. In fact, so many problem genes have been investigated that schizophrenia can be seen as several illnesses rather than one. These genes probably affect the way the brain develops and how nerve cells communicate with one another. In a vulnerable person, a stress (such as a toxin, an infection or a nutritional deficiency) may trigger the illness during critical periods of brain development. Schizophrenia may start as early as childhood and last throughout life. People with this illness periodically have difficulty with their thoughts and their perceptions. They may withdraw from social contacts. Without treatment, symptoms get worse. Schizophrenia is one of several "psychotic" disorders. Psychosis can be defined as the inability to recognize reality. It may include such symptoms as delusions (false beliefs), hallucinations (false perceptions), and disorganized speech or behavior. Psychosis is a symptom of many mental disorders. In other words, having a psychotic symptom does not necessarily mean a person has schizophrenia. Symptoms in schizophrenia are described as either "positive" or "negative." Positive symptoms are psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations and disorganized behavior. Negative symptoms are the tendency toward restricted emotions, flat affect (diminished emotional expressiveness), and the inability to start or continue productive activity. In addition to positive and negative symptoms, many people with schizophrenia also have cognitive symptoms (problems with their intellectual functioning). They may have trouble with "working memory." That is, they have trouble keeping information in mind in order to use it, for example, remembering a phone number that they have just heard. These problems can be very subtle, but in many cases may account for why a person with schizophrenia has such a hard time managing day-to-day life. Schizophrenia can be marked by a steady deterioration of logical thinking, social skills and behavior. These problems can interfere with personal relationships or functioning at work. Self-care can also suffer. As people with schizophrenia realize what it means to have the disease, they may become depressed. People with schizophrenia are therefore at greater than average risk of committing suicide. Family members and health care professionals need to stay alert to this possibility. People with schizophrenia are also at more risk for developing substance abuse problems. People who drink and use substances have a harder time adhering to treatment. People with schizophrenia smoke more than people in the general population. The smoking leads to more health problems. Anyone with serious and chronic mental illness is at greater risk for developing metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a group of risk factors that increase risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The risk factors include obesity, high blood pressure and abnormal lipid levels in the bloodstream. Schizophrenia has historically been divided into several subtypes, but researchers in the last several years have determined that these divisions are probably not clinically useful. (Locked) More »

Childhood Depression and Postpartum Psychiatric Depressive

In the United States, more than 2 million adults suffer from bipolar manic depressive disorder, an illness of extreme moods. It is characterized by deep depression followed by periods of hyperactivity and elation, referred to as mania, with periods of normal mood in between. Bipolar disorder often leads to substance abuse and one in four people with the condition attempt suicide.In a recent study published in the American Journal of Psychiatry, researchers set out to determine how often major childhood depression turns into bipolar disorder. The researchers followed up on 72 subjects who, at an average age of 10.3 years, had been treated for major depressive disorder with the tricyclic antidepressant drug nortriptyline. They also studied 28 normal subjects.At the time of follow-up, the average age of the subjects who had had prepubertal major depressive disorder was 20.7 years. Of these subjects, 33.3% now had bipolar disorder, compared to none of the normal comparison subjects.These results may, in part, be due to heredity. A large portion of the prepubertal children who had been diagnosed with a major depressive disorder had family histories of bipolar disorder. Because bipolar disorder tends to run in families, these children may have been more vulnerable to developing the condition. Another possibility is that the children who were originally treated with nortriptyline already had bipolar disorder, but had not yet experienced their first manic episode.Clinicians treating children with antidepressants should be aware of the risk that children with major depressive disorder may develop adult bipolar manic depressive disease. Another study, published in Psychology and Medicine, sought to determine the long-term prognosis of women with postpartum psychiatric disorders. 50-80% of women experience some degree of postpartum depression within one month of delivering a child. Postpartum psychiatric disorders are more extreme.The study authors used standardized questionnaires to determine the long-term outcome of 64 women who had been hospitalized with postpartum psychiatric disorders 23 years earlier, and who had been interviewed for a 1982 study of women with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizo-affective, bipolar, or unipolar affective disorders.The researchers found that 75% of the women had recurrent psychiatric illness, and 37% of the women had at least three subsequent episodes. However, only 29% of the 34 women who gave birth after the initial postpartum psychiatric disorder had additional episodes of maternal psychiatric illness. In addition, a majority of the 64 women were functioning well in society; 71-73% were employed and in stable relationships.The women with the best outcomes were those who had an initial diagnosis of unipolar disorder, those who experienced psychiatric illness after a first pregnancy, and those whose psychiatric illness started within one month of delivery.July 2001 Update More »