Heart Health

The heart beats about 2.5 billion times over the average lifetime, pushing millions of gallons of blood to every part of the body. This steady flow carries with it oxygen, fuel, hormones, other compounds, and a host of essential cells. It also whisks away the waste products of metabolism. When the heart stops, essential functions fail, some almost instantly.

Given the heart's never-ending workload, it's a wonder it performs so well, for so long, for so many people. But it can also fail, brought down by a poor diet and lack of exercise, smoking, infection, unlucky genes, and more.

A key problem is atherosclerosis. This is the accumulation of pockets of cholesterol-rich gunk inside the arteries. These pockets, called plaque, can limit blood flow through arteries that nourish the heart — the coronary arteries — and other arteries throughout the body. When a plaque breaks apart, it can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Although many people develop some form of cardiovascular disease (a catch-all term for all of the diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels) as they get older, it isn't inevitable. A healthy lifestyle, especially when started at a young age, goes a long way to preventing cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle changes and medications can nip heart-harming trends, like high blood pressure or high cholesterol, in the bud before they cause damage. And a variety of medications, operations, and devices can help support the heart if damage occurs.

Heart Health Articles

Choosing an appropriate heart test

People with stable angina (chest pain that occurs during certain activities and goes away with rest) may be evaluated with a number of different tests. The choice depends the doctor’s level of suspicion that the person has coronary artery disease. (Locked) More »

The trouble with watching too much TV

Sitting while watching TV may be more detrimental to heart health than sitting while at work. But getting the recommended levels of physical activity may protect against watching more than four hours of TV daily. More »

Transforming the treatment of diabetes

A program that uses a smartphone app and telemedicine to provide frequent virtual office visits for people with diabetes may help them manage their disease more effectively. People in the program also receive a glucose monitor to test their blood sugar and use the app to send their results to a cloud-based server, where clinicians can review the results. The app also provides detailed lifestyle intervention plans, including an animated figure that demonstrates exercises and menus that include common foods that people eat everyday but with less carbohydrate, more protein, and smaller portions. More »

Did you get your flu shot yet?

An annual flu vaccine is especially important for people who have or are at risk for heart disease. Growing evidence links influenza infections with both heart attack and heart failure. Having a serious infection can put stress on the heart, increasing its need for oxygen. Coughing and congestion can make breathing more difficult. Like all infections, influenza kicks the immune system into gear. The resulting outpouring of inflammatory molecules may make blood more likely to form clots and irritate the cells lining blood vessels,  changes that could boost the risk of a heart attack. (Locked) More »

Harnessing the power of high-intensity interval training

Interval training means adding brief bouts of strenuous exercise to a workout. Compared with moderate-intensity exercise, it not only saves time but may also help people lose weight and improve their heart health. Also known as high-intensity interval training, or HIIT, the practice may help people burn calories at a high rate after they stop exercising. It also seems to be especially effective in improving the body’s ability to use oxygen, known as cardiorespiratory fitness. (Locked) More »

High blood pressure at the doctors office but not at home?

About one in five people has white-coat hypertension, which refers to blood pressure that is high in the doctor’s office but normal at home. Doctors don’t typically treat this condition with medication. But white-coat hypertension may increase the risk of heart attacks, stroke, and death from heart disease if left untreated. People who take blood pressure medications and still experience a blood pressure rise at the doctor’s office (what’s known as white-coat effect) do not appear to face higher risk of heart disease. Lifestyle changes that can help all people with high blood pressure include losing weight, exercising regularly, limiting salt, and quitting smoking. A practice known as the relaxation response may be especially useful for people with white-coat hypertension. More »

The best beverages for your heart

Sugary beverages such as sodas and lemonade are closely linked to a higher risk of weight gain, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Even healthy-sounding beverages such as 100% fruit juice and vitamin water contain as much sugar as regular sodas. The liquid sugars (which contain glucose and fructose) in juice and soda are absorbed and digested quickly. Excess glucose can cause insulin levels to spike, which can raise the risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Those risks also rise when people consume too much fructose, which can overload the liver. Excess fructose is converted to fat and dumped into the bloodstream. Coffee, tea, and flavored (unsweetened) water are healthier beverage choices. (Locked) More »

When very high cholesterol runs in the family

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited condition that leads to very high levels of harmful LDL cholesterol. Although FH is as common as type 1 diabetes and cystic fibrosis, many people have never heard of it. Because it’s a leading cause of premature heart attacks, ongoing efforts seek better ways to identify FH. Genetic testing isn’t always necessary, because high LDL cholesterol is an excellent indicator of heart disease risk. In children, an LDL cholesterol level of 160 mg/dL or higher suggests FH; in adults, an LDL of 190 mg/dL or higher raises suspicion. (Locked) More »