Heart Health

The heart beats about 2.5 billion times over the average lifetime, pushing millions of gallons of blood to every part of the body. This steady flow carries with it oxygen, fuel, hormones, other compounds, and a host of essential cells. It also whisks away the waste products of metabolism. When the heart stops, essential functions fail, some almost instantly.

Given the heart's never-ending workload, it's a wonder it performs so well, for so long, for so many people. But it can also fail, brought down by a poor diet and lack of exercise, smoking, infection, unlucky genes, and more.

A key problem is atherosclerosis. This is the accumulation of pockets of cholesterol-rich gunk inside the arteries. These pockets, called plaque, can limit blood flow through arteries that nourish the heart — the coronary arteries — and other arteries throughout the body. When a plaque breaks apart, it can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Although many people develop some form of cardiovascular disease (a catch-all term for all of the diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels) as they get older, it isn't inevitable. A healthy lifestyle, especially when started at a young age, goes a long way to preventing cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle changes and medications can nip heart-harming trends, like high blood pressure or high cholesterol, in the bud before they cause damage. And a variety of medications, operations, and devices can help support the heart if damage occurs.

Heart Health Articles

Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)

Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), also known by the shorter name Immune Thrombocytopenia (same abbreviation ITP), can be understood by looking at the three terms that make up its name: Immune indicates that the illness is caused by the immune system, which makes cells and antibodies that attack the person's own platelets — the parts of the blood that help the blood to clot. Thrombocytopenic means that the illness is related to low levels of thrombocytes, another name for platelets. Platelets are produced in the bone marrow (the central lining of the bones). The body needs adequate numbers of functioning platelets to allow blood to clot and to limit bleeding if you are cut or experience other types of trauma. Purpura means that the illness produces a red or purple rash that is caused by bleeding under the skin. This is only one manifestation of the disease In short, ITP is an illness in which unusually low levels of platelets lead to purpura and other forms of abnormal bleeding. (Locked) More »

Aplastic Anemia

Aplastic anemia is a rare, potentially fatal disease in which the bone marrow doesn't make enough blood cells. The bone marrow is the central portion of the bones that is responsible for making: Red blood cells, which carry oxygen White blood cells, which fight infection Platelets, which help blood to clot The bone marrow releases the cells and platelets into the blood stream. A complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test that measures the number of red cells, white cells and platelets circulating in the blood stream. People with aplastic anemia have low levels of all three types of blood cells that are normally manufactured in the bone marrow. Aplastic anemia is a problem with cells in the bone marrow called stem cells. Stem cells are the basic "mother cells" that develop into the three types of blood cells. In aplastic anemia, something either destroys the stem cells or drastically changes the environment of the bone marrow so that the stem cells can't develop properly.  (Locked) More »


An echocardiogram is an ultrasound of the heart. An echocardiogram enables a doctor to examine your heart valves, determine the size of your heart, and assess how well it is functioning. The test can estimate how forcefully your heart is pumping blood, and can spot areas of the heart wall that have been injured by a previous heart attack or some other cause. (Locked) More »

Electrophysiological Testing of the Heart

If you have an arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm), cardiologists can use an electrophysiologic study (EPS) to find out what part of the heart is causing this change in rhythm and what medicines will work best to bring that rhythm back to normal. Sometimes doctors will recommend a treatment called ablation that can be done during EPS testing. Ablation uses electricity to kill the cells in the heart muscle that seem to cause the abnormal rhythm. (Locked) More »


Bradycardia is an abnormally slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute. A normal heartbeat is between 60 and 100 beats per minute. Here's what happens during a normal heartbeat: The electrical signal that starts a heartbeat comes from the heart's sinus node, the natural pacemaker located in the upper portion of the right atrium. From the sinus node, the heartbeat signal travels to the atrioventricular (A-V) node, located between the atria, and then through the bundle of His (pronounced "hiss") -- a series of modified heart-muscle fibers located between the ventricles -- to the muscles of the ventricles. This triggers a contraction of the ventricles and produces a heartbeat.   (Locked) More »

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Blood pressure has two components: Systolic pressure is the top number. It represents the pressure the heart generates when it beats to pump blood to the rest of the body. Diastolic pressure is the bottom number. It refers to the pressure in the blood vessels between heartbeats. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). So blood pressure would be expressed, for example, as 120/80 mmHg. High blood pressure is diagnosed when one or both of these numbers is too high. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. Blood pressure is categorized as follows: Normal: Less than 120/80 mmHg Prehypertension: 120/80 to 139/89 mmHg Stage 1 hypertension: 140/90 to 159/99 mmHg Stage 2 hypertension: 160/100 mmHg and above Usually, systolic pressure increases as we age. However, after age 60, diastolic pressure usually begins to decline. Prehypertension is not a disease—yet. But it does mean you are at increased risk for developing high blood pressure. Although high blood pressure can cause symptoms such as headache and pounding heartbeat, it often causes no symptoms at all. (Locked) More »


Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle that decreases the ability of the heart to pump blood normally. It can be caused by: An infection —Many infections have been associated with myocarditis. Some of the more likely germs include: Viral infections — A common cause of myocarditis. Many different viruses can cause myocarditis. Examples include adenovirus, coxsackievirus, Epstein-Barr virus, HIV, varicella (chickenpox) and human herpes virus 6. Often the person has no preceding symptoms of a cold, cough, nasal congestion or rash and only becomes aware of the infection when heart failure occurs. Bacteria — Rarely, myocarditis is a complication of endocarditis, an infection of the heart valves and the lining inside the heart's chambers caused by bacteria. In some people with diphtheria, a toxin (poison) produced by C. diphtheriae bacteria causes a form of myocarditis that leads to a flabby, stretched-out heart muscle. Because the flabby, enlarged heart cannot pump blood efficiently, severe heart failure may develop within the first week of illness. Chagas' disease — This infection, caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is transmitted by an insect bite. In the United States, myocarditis caused by Chagas' disease is most common among travelers to or immigrants from Central and South America. In up to one-third of people with Chagas' disease, a form of chronic (long-term) myocarditis develops many years after the first infection. This chronic myocarditis leads to significant destruction of heart muscle with progressive heart failure. Lyme myocarditis — Lyme disease, an infection caused by the tick-borne bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, can cause myocarditis or other heart problems. (Locked) More »

Heart Murmur

A heart murmur is a sound made by turbulent blood flow within the heart. Your doctor hears this sound with a stethoscope. A murmur can occur in a normal heart. Or it may indicate some problem within the heart. Most often, the turbulence is normal. And the sound is called a benign flow murmur. It happens when blood flows faster through the heart, for example in a person who is anxious, has just finished exercising, has a high fever or has severe anemia. About 10% of adults and 30% of children (most between the ages of 3 and 7) have a harmless murmur produced by a normal heart. This type of murmur is also called an innocent murmur. A heart murmur may indicate a structural abnormality of a heart valve or heart chamber, or it may be due to an abnormal connection between two parts of the heart. (Locked) More »


Angina is discomfort or pain in the chest that happens when not enough oxygen-rich blood reaches the muscle cells of the heart. The most common cause of angina is coronary artery disease. Coronary artery disease is usually caused by atherosclerosis. In this condition, fatty deposits (called plaque) build up along the inside walls of blood vessels that feed oxygen and nutrients to the pumping heart. (Locked) More »

Mitral Valve Prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse is a malfunction of the heart's mitral valve, the physical doorway between the heart's left atrium and left ventricle. Normally, the mitral valve closes when the ventricle's muscles contract, preventing blood from flowing back into the left atrium when the heart pumps blood to the rest of the body. In mitral valve prolapse, however, a slight deformity of the mitral valve prevents the valve from closing normally. This appears as an abnormal floppiness, or prolapse, of the valve. The result is that small amounts of blood leak back into the left atrium, with very little effect on the heart's overall ability to pump blood. In some people, the leak worsens to create a significant backflow of blood into the left atrium. This is called mitral regurgitation. People with severe mitral regurgitation can develop symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue and leg swelling. Rarely, heart surgery is needed to repair the damaged valve. In most people with mitral valve prolapse, the cause is unknown. However, in a small number of patients, mitral valve prolapse may be related to another medical condition, such as an inherited abnormality in the way the body produces collagen (connective tissue) or rheumatic heart disease (a rare complication of strep throat). Health experts estimate that mitral valve prolapse currently affects up to 5% of people in the United States. For unknown reasons, the condition is most common in women between 14 and 30. The condition sometimes affects several members of the same family,and there is some evidence that the condition can be inherited. (Locked) More »