Heart Disease

The heart beats about 2.5 billion times over the average lifetime, pushing millions of gallons of blood to every part of the body. This steady flow carries with it oxygen, fuel, hormones, other compounds, and a host of essential cells. It also whisks away the waste products of metabolism. When the heart stops, essential functions fail, some almost instantly.

Given the heart's never-ending workload, it's a wonder it performs so well, for so long, for so many people. But it can also fail, brought down by a poor diet and lack of exercise, smoking, infection, unlucky genes, and more.

A key problem is atherosclerosis. This is the accumulation of pockets of cholesterol-rich gunk inside the arteries. These pockets, called plaque, can limit blood flow through arteries that nourish the heart — the coronary arteries — and other arteries throughout the body. When a plaque breaks apart, it can cause a heart attack or stroke.

Although many people develop some form of cardiovascular disease (a catch-all term for all of the diseases affecting the heart and blood vessels) as they get older, it isn't inevitable. A healthy lifestyle, especially when started at a young age, goes a long way to preventing cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle changes and medications can nip heart-harming trends, like high blood pressure or high cholesterol, in the bud before they cause damage. And a variety of medications, operations, and devices can help support the heart if damage occurs.

Heart diseases include:

  • coronary artery disease: the accumulation of cholesterol-filled plaque in the arteries that nourish heart muscle
  • heart attack (myocardial infarction): the sudden stopping of blood flow to part of the heart muscle
  • heart failure: the inability of the heart to pump as forcefully or efficiently as needed to supply the body with oxygenated blood
  • heart rhythm disorders: heartbeats that are too fast, too slow, or irregular
  • heart valve disorders: problems with the valves that control blood flow from one part of the heart to another part of the heart or to the body.
  • sudden cardiac arrest: the sudden cessation of the heartbeat
  • cardiomyopathy: a disease of the heart muscle that causes the heart to become abnormally enlarged, thickened, and/or stiffened
  • pericarditis: inflammation of the pericardium, a thin sac that surrounds the heart
  • myocarditis: inflammation of the myocardium, the middle layer of the heart wall
  • congenital heart disease: heart diseases or abnormalities in the heart's structure that occur before birth

Heart Disease Articles

Choosing an appropriate heart test

People with stable angina (chest pain that occurs during certain activities and goes away with rest) may be evaluated with a number of different tests. The choice depends the doctor’s level of suspicion that the person has coronary artery disease. (Locked) More »

Don't give up on grains

Many people are opting for low-carb diets and cutting out grains as a result. But when they do, they might be missing out on the nutritional benefits whole grains can bring. Whole grains are not only nutrient-rich but also contain fiber and cancer-fighting plant chemicals, known as phytochemicals. To eat more, try different varieties, including brown rice, barley, steel-cut oats, and quinoa. (Locked) More »

Transforming the treatment of diabetes

A program that uses a smartphone app and telemedicine to provide frequent virtual office visits for people with diabetes may help them manage their disease more effectively. People in the program also receive a glucose monitor to test their blood sugar and use the app to send their results to a cloud-based server, where clinicians can review the results. The app also provides detailed lifestyle intervention plans, including an animated figure that demonstrates exercises and menus that include common foods that people eat everyday but with less carbohydrate, more protein, and smaller portions. More »

A purpose-driven life may last longer

Having a purpose in life may help improve health, according to a new study. Study authors found that people who have a strong life purpose were less likely to die from cardiovascular disease and other conditions than people who don’t. Volunteering, contributing to the well-being of family members, and hobbies are all things that people report give them purpose in life. (Locked) More »

Can these three steps save 100 million lives?

A worldwide push to lower blood pressure, reduce sodium intake, and stop eating trans fat could delay more than 94 million deaths from cardiovascular disease in the next 25 years, finds a study published online June 10, 2019, by Circulation. More »

High blood pressure at the doctors office but not at home?

About one in five people has white-coat hypertension, which refers to blood pressure that is high in the doctor’s office but normal at home. Doctors don’t typically treat this condition with medication. But white-coat hypertension may increase the risk of heart attacks, stroke, and death from heart disease if left untreated. People who take blood pressure medications and still experience a blood pressure rise at the doctor’s office (what’s known as white-coat effect) do not appear to face higher risk of heart disease. Lifestyle changes that can help all people with high blood pressure include losing weight, exercising regularly, limiting salt, and quitting smoking. A practice known as the relaxation response may be especially useful for people with white-coat hypertension. More »

Red meat, TMAO, and your heart

Researchers are finding that a substance called trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), produced when the body digests red meat, is linked to health ills such as cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. Experts say people with high levels of TMAO in their blood may have double the risk of cardiovascular disease, compared with people who have lower levels. (Locked) More »

When very high cholesterol runs in the family

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited condition that leads to very high levels of harmful LDL cholesterol. Although FH is as common as type 1 diabetes and cystic fibrosis, many people have never heard of it. Because it’s a leading cause of premature heart attacks, ongoing efforts seek better ways to identify FH. Genetic testing isn’t always necessary, because high LDL cholesterol is an excellent indicator of heart disease risk. In children, an LDL cholesterol level of 160 mg/dL or higher suggests FH; in adults, an LDL of 190 mg/dL or higher raises suspicion. (Locked) More »