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Birth Control Archive
Studies question ban on alcohol during pregnancy
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy has been taboo for some time, largely because drinking too much can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Because no one has been able to identify a clear threshold for “safe” drinking during pregnancy, doctors tell women to steer away from alcohol entirely. A series of five studies from Denmark published in BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology found that “low” (1-4 drinks per week) to “moderate” (5-8 drinks per week) alcohol consumption in early pregnancy did not harm the neuropsychological development of children evaluated at age five. Drinking more appears to be a different story. In one of the studies, five-year-olds whose mothers consumed higher levels of alcohol (9 or more drinks per week) during pregnancy were significantly more likely to have lower attention spans. The authors of the study do not argue that drinking alcohol during pregnancy is wise or to be encouraged. In fact, most doctors will continue to advise pregnant women not to drink alcohol. is there a middle ground? Perhaps. Deciding to have a sip (or glass) of champagne at a special occasion during pregnancy may not be an unreasonable or unsafe choice–one that each woman has to make for herself, ideally after talking with her obstetrician or midwife about this issue.
Study elucidates health risks for DES daughters
The synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) was widely prescribed in the 1940s, '50s, and '60s to prevent miscarriage and premature delivery. Its dangers were first revealed in the early 1970s, when Harvard-affiliated researchers linked the drug to a rare cancer of the vagina and cervix in the daughters of women who took DES while pregnant. In 1971, the FDA issued a warning against its use by pregnant women, but five to 10 million pregnant women and their babies had already been exposed. In the following decades, many other health problems were discovered among DES daughters. A report from the DES Follow-up Study, published in The New England Journal of Medicine (Oct. 6, 2011), documents the health risks for these women.
The study. In 1992, researchers contacted women who had participated in one of three studies of DES daughters undertaken in the 1970s. They recruited 4,653 women who had been exposed to DES in utero for a follow-up study, along with a control group of 1,927 women who had not been exposed. Using questionnaires, phone interviews, and medical records, the researchers assessed the cumulative risk for 12 health problems linked to DES exposure in earlier studies.
Do chronic diseases have their origins in the womb?
Heart disease, stroke, diabetes, asthma, osteoporosis and other common chronic diseases are often blamed on genes, pollution, or the wear and tear caused by personal choices like a poor diet, smoking, or too little exercise. An intriguing hypothesis is that these and other conditions stem from a developing baby’s environment, mainly the womb and the placenta. During the first thousand days of development, from conception to age 2, the body’s tissues, organs, and systems are exquisitely sensitive to conditions in their environment during various windows of time. A lack of nutrients or an overabundance of them during these windows, so the thinking goes, programs a child’s development and sets the stage for health or disease.
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