Skip to content
Franklin ME, et al. "Cognitive Behavior Therapy Augmentation of
Pharmacotherapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The
Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II (POTS II) Randomized Controlled
Trial." Journal of the American Medical Association
(Sept. 21, 2011): Vol. 306, No. 11, pp. 1224–32.
O'Kearney RT, et al. "Behavioural and Cognitive Behavioural
Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and
Adolescents," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
(Oct., 18, 2006): Doc. No. CD004856.
Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) Team. "Cognitive-Behavior
Therapy, Sertraline, and Their Combination for Children and
Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Pediatric OCD
Treatment Study (POTS) Randomized Controlled Trial," Journal
of the American Medical Association (Oct. 27, 2004) : Vol.
292, No. 16, pp. 1969–76.
Flaherty JH. "The Evaluation and Management of Delirium Among
Older Persons," Medical Clinics of North America (May
2011): Vol. 95, No. 3, pp. 555-77.
Inouye SK, et al. "The Hospital Elder Life Program: A Model of
Care to Prevent Cognitive and Functional Decline in Older
Hospitalized Patients," Journal of the American Geriatric
Society (Dec. 2000): Vol. 48, No. 12, pp. 1697-706.
Marcantonio ER. "In the Clinic: Delirium," Annals of Internal
Medicine (June 7, 2011): Vol. 154, No. 11, electronic
Cascella NG, et al. "Schizophrenia and Epilepsy: Is There a
Shared Susceptibility?" Neuroscience Research (April
2009): Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 227–35.
Chang YT, et al. "Bidirectional Relation Between Schizophrenia
and Epilepsy: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study,"
Epilepsia (Sep. 19, 2011), electronic publication ahead
Keshavan MS, et al. "Schizophrenia, 'Just the Facts' 6. Moving
Ahead with the Schizophrenia Concept: From the Elephant to the
Mouse," Schizophrenia Research (April 2011): Vol. 127,
No. 1–3, pp. 3–13.
It is normal for many children, at various stages of development,
to be concerned about symmetry and having things perfect, to
insist on certain bedtime routines, or to develop superstitions
and rituals like avoiding cracks in the sidewalk. But when such
beliefs or behaviors become all-consuming and start interfering
with school, home life, or recreational activities, the problem
may be obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
The disorder usually originates in childhood or adolescence, with
symptoms appearing as early as age 3. Childhood OCD is more
common in boys than in girls.
Obsessions are irrational thoughts, images, and impulses that are
felt as unrealistic, intrusive, and unwanted. In children,
obsessions may govern how toys or other personal belongings are
arranged in the playroom. In teenagers, thoughts and impulses may
give rise to fears of contamination or excessive concern with
religious rituals, such as praying constantly. To relieve the
anxiety caused by these obsessions, youths of all ages may engage
in compulsive rituals such as buttoning and unbuttoning a shirt
dozens of times before wearing it.
Even young children often know that their obsessions are
senseless, but they may be helpless to stop themselves. If youths
try to avoid the situations that provoke the behavior, their
lives may become increasingly restricted. As a result, they may
become demoralized, and their development may be
Evidence suggests that these two brain disorders may share
Auditory hallucinations. Unusual feelings or sensations.
Dreamlike alterations in consciousness. These can be symptoms of
both schizophrenia and epilepsy. Evidence continues to accumulate
that the two brain disorders overlap in ways that researchers are
still trying to understand.
In a paper, researchers at the China Medical University in Taiwan
analyzed medical records stored in a national registry to
determine how many people initially diagnosed with schizophrenia
later developed epilepsy — and vice versa. The results suggest
that people who develop one of these disorders are at heightened
risk for the other. People with schizophrenia were nearly six
times as likely to develop epilepsy compared with other people,
while individuals with epilepsy were nearly eight times as likely
to develop schizophrenia compared with other people.
The findings add to earlier evidence that schizophrenia and
epilepsy often occur in tandem. Although all of these studies are
observational — meaning they can detect patterns but not prove
cause and effect — they suggest that schizophrenia and epilepsy
may share biological roots. The factors that contribute to both
disorders likely consist of some mix of genetic changes and
During illness, hospitalization, or recovery, some people
experience delirium, a rapidly developing and severe confusion
accompanied by altered consciousness and an inability to focus.
It's one of the most common complications of hospitalization
among older people, affecting as many as 20% of those ages 65 and
over who are admitted to hospitals.
There are different types of delirium. In hyperactive delirium,
people may become agitated, noisy, prone to hallucination, and
possibly belligerent. This type of delirium is more typical of
withdrawal from alcohol or psychoactive drugs, but occurs
relatively rarely in people who have delirium related to illness
or hospitalization. Far more common is hypoactive delirium, in
which the patient may be equally disoriented but is withdrawn,
drowsy, or difficult to wake. Some patients also fluctuate
between the two states.
The first step in treatment is identifying the underlying cause
According to the book Organize
Your Mind, Organize Your Life, the key to a less hectic, less
stressful life is not simply to become more organized, but to
change the way you think. The authors are Dr. Paul Hammerness,
assistant professor of psychiatry and a researcher in brain
sciences at Massachusetts General Hospital, and Margaret Moore,
co-director of the Institute of Coaching at McLean Hospital — both
In their book, Dr. Hammerness and Ms. Moore explore the latest
brain science underlying organization and offer tips about how to
use the innate organizational power of your brain to make your life
less stressful, more productive, and ultimately more rewarding.
The American Academy of Pediatrics has amended its guidelines for
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
A study suggests that mindfulness training may help people who
have quit smoking remain nonsmokers.
I got divorced a few months ago. Recently I was diagnosed with
depression. A friend suggested I try interpersonal therapy. She
thinks the problem is my relationship with my former husband. I'd
never heard of this therapy. Could you tell me more about it?