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All children and adolescents act out occasionally, but those with
conduct disorder consistently behave in unusually aggressive ways
— sometimes resulting in property damage or physical injury.
A review identified 16 psychosocial treatments that are likely to
be effective for disruptive behavior in children and adolescents.
Most of the effective interventions involved parents or other
caregivers as well as the child.
One popular approach is known as parent management training,
which focuses on helping parents to better manage the child's
behavior. A related model is known as behavioral family therapy.
Therapists using this approach not only work with parents to
modify a child's behavior, but also help them learn
stress-reduction techniques, understand how a child's temperament
can affect behavior, and recognize their own ways of thinking
about the child's behavior. Medications and other therapies tend
to be less effective, but may be helpful for some children.
A stressful situation can trigger a cascade of stress hormones that produce well-orchestrated physiological changes. A stressful incident can make the heart pound and breathing quicken. Muscles tense and beads of sweat appear.
This combination of reactions to stress is also known as the "fight-or-flight" response because it evolved as a survival mechanism, enabling people and other mammals to react quickly to life-threatening situations. The carefully orchestrated yet near-instantaneous sequence of hormonal changes and physiological responses helps someone to fight the threat off or flee to safety. Unfortunately, the body can also overreact to stressors that are not life-threatening, such as traffic jams, work pressure, and family difficulties.
Over the years, researchers have learned not only how and why these reactions occur, but have also gained insight into the long-term effects stress has on physical and psychological health. Over time, repeated activation of the stress response takes a toll on the body. Research suggests that prolonged stress contributes to high blood pressure, promotes the formation of artery-clogging deposits, and causes brain changes that may contribute to anxiety, depression, and addiction. More preliminary research suggests that chronic stress may also contribute to obesity, both through direct mechanisms (causing people to eat more) or indirectly (decreasing sleep and exercise).
Only one-third of patients with major depression achieve remission
after trying one antidepressant. When the first medication doesn't
adequately relieve symptoms, next-step options include adding a new
drug to the first or switching to another drug. With time and
persistence, nearly seven in 10 adult patients with major
depression eventually find a treatment that works.
Of course, that also means that the remaining one-third of patients
with major depression cannot achieve remission even after trying
multiple options. Experts are hunting for ways to understand the
cause of persistent symptoms. In recent years, one theory in
particular has gained traction — that many people with
hard-to-treat major depression actually suffer from bipolar
disorder. However, a paper suggests otherwise, and the findings
provide new insights into the nature of treatment-resistant
It was hoped that a medication normally given to Alzheimer's
disease patients might help people with delirium, but a study
found that it made the delirium worse.
A study found that a program of mindfulness therapy was about as
effective as a maintenance dosage of medication at preventing a
relapse of depression.
Is The King's Speech, the movie chronicling the relationship
between England's King George VI and his speech therapist, an
accurate portrayal of stuttering?