References for "Motivating behavior change"

Lai DT, et al. "Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Jan. 20, 2010): Doc. No. CD006936. Miller WR, et al. "Toward a Theory of Motivational Interviewing," American Psychologist (Sept. 2009): Vol. 64, No. 6, pp. 527–37. Pollak KI, et al. "Physician Communication Techniques and Weight Loss in Adults: Project CHAT," American Journal of Preventive Medicine (Oct. 2010): Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 321–28. (Locked) More »

References for "Overcoming insomnia"

Becker PM. "Insomnia: Prevalence, Impact, Pathogenesis, Differential Diagnosis, and Evaluation," Psychiatric Clinics of North America (Dec. 2006): Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 855–70. Epstein L. Improving Sleep: A Guide to a Good Night's Rest (Harvard Health Publishing, 2010). Morin CM, et al. "Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Singly and Combined with Medication, for Persistent Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association (May 20, 2009): Vol. 301, No. 19, pp. 2005–15. (Locked) More »

References for "Smoking increases later risk of dementia"

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "Health Effects of Cigarette Smoking," fact sheet updated Sept. 15, 2010. Kivipelto M, et al. "Apolipoprotein E Epsilon4 Magnifies Lifestyle Risks for Dementia: A Population-Based Study," Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Dec. 2008): Vol. 12, No. 6B, pp. 2762–71. Kivipelto M, et al. "Risk Score for the Prediction of Dementia Risk in 20 Years among Middle Aged People: A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study," Lancet Neurology (Sept. 2006): Vol. 5, No. 9, pp. 735–41. (Locked) More »

Motivating behavior change

Motivational interviewing is a therapeutic technique many clinicians use to help a patient identify personal reasons for undertaking the hard work of behavior change. Although originally developed for the treatment of alcohol dependence, motivational interviewing is now used to help patients overcome other types of substance abuse, stop smoking, lose weight, increase physical activity, and improve adherence to medical treatment. Motivational interviewing shares much in common with the transtheoretical or "stages of change" model of behavior change. Although not universally endorsed, the transtheoretical model holds that at any given time, a person is at a particular stage in relation to behavior change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, or maintenance. At the precontemplation stage, people do not acknowledge how serious the problem is, or even refuse to admit that they have a problem. At the contemplation stage, they are aware of the problem but have not yet decided to act. Especially for people addicted to alcohol or drugs, the first steps are often the most difficult, and many of them languish too long in the precontemplation and contemplation stages. Motivational interviewing is often best suited for these early stages of change. (Locked) More »

Overcoming insomnia

People with insomnia — the inability to sleep — may be plagued by trouble falling asleep, unwelcome awakenings during the night, and fitful sleep. They may experience daytime drowsiness yet still be unable to nap, and are often anxious, irritable, and unable to concentrate. Millions of people suffer from insomnia, and it often accompanies a psychiatric disorder. Sleep problems are particularly common in patients with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). One of the most common ways to classify insomnia is in terms of duration of symptoms. Insomnia is considered transient if it lasts less than a month, short-term if it continues for one to six months, and chronic if the problem persists longer than six months. Treatment becomes necessary once insomnia impairs sleep quality to the degree that it adversely affects a person's health or ability to function during the day. Cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended over medication for treating chronic insomnia. More »

Smoking increases later risk of dementia

Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia are the biological equivalents of slow-motion train wrecks. These degenerative brain disorders take years to develop. Some factors that predispose people to develop dementia — such as advanced age and genetic profile — cannot be changed. Scientists are therefore searching for modifiable risk factors that would help people reduce their risk of developing dementia. One area of focus is cigarette smoking. The research so far is preliminary, but it suggests that smoking increases risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. (Locked) More »