References for "Autism spectrum disorders"

Callahan K, et al. "ABA Versus TEACCH: The Case for Defining and Validating Comprehensive Treatment Models in Autism," Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (Jan. 2010): Vol. 40, No. 1, pp. 74–88. Dawson G, et al. "Randomized, Controlled Trial of an Intervention for Toddlers with Autism: The Early Start Denver Model," Pediatrics (Jan, 2010): Vol. 125, No. 1, pp. e17–23. Johnson CP, et al. "Identification and Evaluation of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders," Pediatrics (Nov. 2007): Vol. 120, No. 5, pp. 1183–215. (Locked) More »

References for "Transcranial magnetic stimulation"

Brakemeier EL, et al. "Patterns of Response to Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Major Depression: Replication Study in Drug-Free Patients," Journal of Affective Disorders (May 2008): Vol. 108, No. 1–2, pp. 59–70. Fregni F, et al. "Predictors of Antidepressant Response in Clinical Trials of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation," International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology (Dec. 2006): Vol. 9, No. 6, pp. 641–54. Gaynes BN, et al. "The STAR*D Study: Treating Depression in the Real World," Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine (Jan. 2008): Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 57–66. (Locked) More »

References for “Merits of psychodynamic therapy”

Abbass AA, et al. "Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapies for Common Mental Disorders," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Oct. 2006): Doc. No. CD004687. De Maat S, et al. "The Effectiveness of Long-Term Psychoanalytic Therapy: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies," Harvard Review of Psychiatry (Jan.–Feb. 2009): Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 1–23. * Gabbard GO, ed. Textbook of Psychotherapeutic Treatments (American Psychiatric Publishing, 2009). (Locked) More »

Merits of psychodynamic therapy

Psychodynamic therapy has its roots in psychoanalysis, the long-term "talking cure." Like psychoanalysis, psychodynamic therapy recognizes that the relationships and circumstances of early life continue to affect people as adults, that human behavior results from unconscious as well as conscious or rational motives, and that the act of talking about problems can help people find ways to solve them or at least to bear them. Both psychoanalysis and psychodynamic therapy rely on the therapeutic alliance in order to work. The therapeutic alliance is the personal connection between therapist and patient that enables them to work in tandem so that the patient can gain insight into aspects of experience that may be difficult to talk and think about. As the therapeutic alliance deepens, a therapist helps patients to understand themselves in new ways, and to become more mindful of a greater range of their thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and experiences. Dr. Glen Gabbard, professor of psychiatry and psychoanalysis at Baylor College of Medicine, has called the therapeutic alliance the "envelope" within which psychodynamic therapy takes place. Although modern therapists frequently question the distinction, it is useful to note that psychodynamic therapy and psychoanalysis differ in some ways. During psychoanalysis, patients generally attend meetings three to five days a week, whereas in psychodynamic therapy, a patient typically sees a therapist once or twice a week. Thus the intensity of the therapeutic relationship is greater in psychoanalysis. Both psychoanalysis and the long-term form of psychodynamic therapy may be conducted in an open-ended manner, over many years, with the patient and therapist/analyst taking as much time as they need to decide about the duration of treatment. Short-term treatment with psychodynamic therapy, in contrast, is time-limited and usually lasts less than six months. (Locked) More »

Autism spectrum disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) describes five pervasive developmental disorders: autistic disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Asperger's disorder, Rett's disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified. Although they differ in some specifics, these disorders share three core features: impaired social interactions, difficulty in communicating with others, and repetitive or inflexible behavior. Recognizing that these disorders differ mainly in terms of severity, authors of the draft DSM-V, now undergoing review, have proposed deleting Rett's disorder and including the other four under the single category of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It remains unclear what causes an ASD, but most risk factors are genetic. When one identical twin develops an ASD, then 82% to 92% of the time the other one (who shares the same genes) will also develop the disorder. The concordance rate drops to 10% or less in fraternal twins, who share only some genes. ASDs affect roughly one in 150 children, although some studies suggest the prevalence may be higher. ASD diagnoses have been increasing since the 1960s, but it remains unclear whether this is because of better awareness and assessment, or some unknown environmental factor that triggers these disorders in children who are genetically susceptible. There is no cure for any ASD, but early interventions — mainly educational and psychosocial — take advantage of the developing brain's ability to change in response to experience. As such, early interventions may help improve a child's ability to communicate and interact with others. An ongoing challenge, however, is making the diagnosis as early as possible. In the United States, children are 4 to 5 years old, on average, when first diagnosed with an ASD, even though parents generally express concerns about atypical development much earlier, when children are 12 to 18 months old. (Locked) More »

Transcranial magnetic stimulation

Although multiple psychotherapy and medication options exist for treating major depression, they don't work for everyone. Patients who have not responded to medication, or who have not been able to tolerate other options, may be eligible for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The FDA in 2008 approved the first repetitive rTMS device specifically for treating major depression that has not responded to at least one medication taken at adequate dose and duration (usually defined as at least four weeks). A federally funded study provided further guidance about its use. First, some caveats. Repetitive TMS is likely to be offered only after several mainstream treatments for major depression have already been tried; this method is not recommended for patients with mild depression or newly diagnosed major depression. And rTMS has not been studied in pregnant women or youths younger than 18. (Locked) More »