References for "Antidepressants and tamoxifen"

Andersohn F, et al. "Interaction of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors with Tamoxifen," BMJ (Feb. 2010): Vol. 340, electronic publication. Borges S, et al. "Quantitative Effect of CYP2D6 Genotype and Inhibitors on Tamoxifen Metabolism: Implication for Optimization of Breast Cancer Treatment," Clinical and Pharmacological Therapies (July 2006): Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 61–74. Chubak J, et al. "Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk in Relation to Antidepressant Use After Diagnosis," Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (Nov. 2008): Vol. 112, No. 1, pp. 123–32. (Locked) More »

References for "Chewing gum and memory"

Baker JR, et al. "Chewing Gum Can Produce Context-Dependent Effects Upon Memory," Appetite (Oct. 2004): Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 207-10. Hirano Y, et al. "Effects of Chewing in Working Memory Processing," Neuroscience Letters (May 2008): Vol. 436, No. 2, pp., 189-92. Johnson AJ, et al. "Chewing Gum and Context-Dependent Memory: The Independent Roles of Chewing Gum and Mint Flavor," British Journal of Psychology (May 2008): Vol. 99, Part 2, pp. 293-306. (Locked) More »

References for "Schizophrenia treatment recommendations updated"

Buchanan RW, et al. "The 2009 Schizophrenia PORT Psychopharmacological Treatment Recommendations and Summary Statements," Schizophrenia Bulletin (Jan. 2010): Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 71–93. Busch AB, et al. "Changes Over Time and Disparities in Schizophrenia Treatment Quality," Medical Care (Feb. 2009): Vol. 47, No. 2, pp. 199–207. Dixon LB, et al. "The 2009 Schizophrenia PORT Psychosocial Treatment Recommendations and Summary Statements," Schizophrenia Bulletin (Jan. 2010): Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 48–70. (Locked) More »

References for "Treating borderline personality disorder"

American Psychiatric Association. "Proposed Revision to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition," accessed at Bateman A, et al. "8-Year Follow-Up of Patients Treated for Borderline Personality Disorder: Mentalization-Based Treatment versus Treatment as Usual," American Journal of Psychiatry (May 2008): Vol. 165, No. 5, pp. 631–38. Bateman A, et al. "Randomized Controlled Trial of Outpatient Mentalization-Based Treatment versus Structured Clinical Management for Borderline Personality Disorder," American Journal of Psychiatry (Dec. 2009): Vol. 166, No. 12, pp. 1355–64. (Locked) More »

Treating borderline personality disorder

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a challenge to treat not only because it is complicated and stigmatized, but also because its symptoms reflect ingrained patterns of thinking and behavior. Although it is heterogeneous in nature, causing different clusters of symptoms in different people, the disorder has three major clinical components: a fragile sense of self that impairs relationships with other people, impulsiveness, and emotional volatility. Many patients with BPD also have other mental health problems, such as a mood disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Drugs may be moderately helpful at reducing particular symptoms, such as depression or anxiety, but they do not address core personality traits and behaviors. As such, psychotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for patients with BPD, although there is no "one-size-fits-all" treatment. Dialectical behavior therapy is probably the most common psychotherapy used for BPD, but other options have emerged. A review of four psychotherapies concluded that all were equally effective overall, but that each had specific advantages. As such, clinicians and patients can decide on an individual basis which treatment is most appropriate. The impact of BPD extends well beyond the individual patient, causing suffering in family members as well. Loved ones, like therapists, may struggle with how to respond constructively to a patient's volatile moods and demands. For that reason, family members may also benefit from psychotherapy. (Locked) More »

Schizophrenia treatment recommendations updated

The new PORT guidelines focus on improving physical as well as mental health. The Schizophrenia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) has issued updated treatment recommendations that not only include detailed advice about medication and psychosocial treatments but also address, for the first time, common problems in this population such as smoking cessation, substance abuse treatment, and weight loss. The authors note that the goal is not only to help clinicians and patients understand how to increase chances of schizophrenia recovery (albeit modest in scope), but also how to reduce the risk of additional life-threatening medical problems such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The PORT recommendations, issued in 1998 and first updated in 2003, were funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health. Researchers at the University of Maryland wrote the latest update after consulting with leading schizophrenia experts. In contrast to efforts like the American Psychiatric Association practice guidelines for schizophrenia and the Texas Medication Algorithm Project, which attempt to address the full range of situations clinicians encounter, the PORT review is more conservative in scope. The PORT authors limit their recommendations to those interventions that have been tested in randomized controlled trials. More »

Antidepressants and tamoxifen

Approximately 20% to 30% of the women who take tamoxifen also use antidepressants to alleviate depression, anxiety, or hot flashes. Some antidepressants are such strong inhibitors of CYP2D6 that women who take these drugs may not benefit from tamoxifen. Two papers suggest that three antidepressants — paroxetine (Paxil), fluoxetine (Prozac), and bupropion (Wellbutrin) — are most likely to inhibit CYP2D6 and interfere with tamoxifen treatment. In one paper, researchers at McGill University reviewed seven clinical studies of women taking both tamoxifen and antidepressants. They also examined laboratory studies to assess the inhibitory effects of various antidepressants on the CYP2D6 enzyme in cell cultures. They found consistent evidence that two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) — paroxetine and fluoxetine — were strong inhibitors of CYP2D6. Indirect evidence from the laboratory studies suggested that bupropion, an antidepressant that affects the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine, also severely inhibits CYP2D6. Other drugs had less of an impact on this enzyme. More »