References for "Autism spectrum disorders and the gut"

Buie T, et al. "Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Individuals with ASDs: A Consensus Report," Pediatrics (2010): Vol. 125, Supplement No. 1, pp. S1–S18. Buie T, et al. "Recommendations for Evaluation and Treatment of Common Gastrointestinal Problems in Children with ASDs," Pediatrics (2010): Vol. 125, Supplement No. 1, pp. S19–S29. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). (Locked) More »

References for "Medical marijuana and the mind"

American Medical Association. "Report 3 of the Council on Science and Public Health (I-09) Use of Cannabis for Medicinal Purposes (Resolutions 910, I-08; and 229, A-09)," amended 2009, available online at American Medical Association. "Report 6 of the Council on Scientific Affairs (A-01) Full Report," (2001), available online at Arseneault L, et al. "Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Risk for Adult Psychosis," BMJ (Nov. 23, 2002): Vol. 325, No. 7374, pp. 1212–13. More »

References for "Morphine and traumatic memory"

Bryant RA, et al. "A Study of the Protective Function of Acute Morphine Administration on Subsequent Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder," Biological Psychiatry (March 1, 2009): Vol. 65, No. 5, pp. 438–40. Friedman MJ. "Prevention of Psychiatric Problems Among Military Personnel and Their Spouses," New England Journal of Medicine (Jan. 14, 2010): Vol. 362, No. 2, pp. 168–70. Holbrook TL, et al. "Morphine Use After Combat Injury in Iraq and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder," New England Journal of Medicine (Jan. 14, 2010): Vol. 362, No. 2, pp. 110–7. (Locked) More »

References for "Options for mild or moderate depression"

Dunn AL, et al. "Exercise Treatment for Depression: Efficacy and Dose Response," American Journal of Preventive Medicine (Jan. 2005): Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 1–8. Fournier JC, et al. "Antidepressant Drug Effects and Depression Severity: A Patient-Level Meta-Analysis," Journal of the American Medical Association (Jan. 6, 2010): Vol. 303, No. 1, pp. 47–53. Kessler RC, et al. "Prevalence, Severity, and Comorbidity of 12-Month DSM-IV Disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication," Archives of General Psychiatry (June 2005): Vol. 62, No. 6, pp. 617–27. (Locked) More »

Medical marijuana and the mind

The movement to legalize marijuana for medical use in the United States has renewed discussion about how this drug affects the brain, and whether it might be useful in treating psychiatric disorders. Unfortunately, most of the research on marijuana is based on people who smoked the drug for recreational rather than medical purposes. A review by researchers in Canada (where medical marijuana is legal) identified only 31 studies (23 randomized controlled trials and eight observational studies) specifically focused on medical benefits of the drug. A separate review by the American Medical Association (AMA) also concluded that the research base remains sparse. This was one reason that the AMA urged the federal government to reconsider its classification of marijuana as a Schedule 1 controlled substance (prohibiting both medical and recreational use), so that researchers could more easily conduct clinical trials. Consensus exists that marijuana may be helpful in treating certain carefully defined medical conditions. In its comprehensive 1999 review, for example, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) concluded that marijuana may be modestly effective for pain relief (particularly nerve pain), appetite stimulation for people with AIDS wasting syndrome, and control of chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting. Given the availability of FDA-approved medications for these conditions, however, the IOM advised that marijuana be considered as a treatment only when patients don't get enough relief from currently available drugs. Additional research since then has confirmed the IOM's core findings and recommendations. Although anecdotal reports abound, few randomized controlled studies support the use of medical marijuana for psychiatric conditions. The meager evidence for benefits must be weighed against the much better documented risks, particularly for young people who use marijuana. More »

Autism spectrum disorders and the gut

Researchers have long disagreed about whether gastrointestinal problems may underlie some symptoms of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This has not stopped some researchers and celebrities from promoting theories and special "autism diets" with no scientific support. Yet these unfounded recommendations might appeal to grieving and vulnerable parents who are heartbroken about a child's sudden developmental regression. In an effort to provide guidance for clinicians, parents, and patients, a multidisciplinary panel has published the first consensus report about gastrointestinal problems in individuals with ASDs. A companion report provides detailed advice about diagnosing and treating the most common problems. (Locked) More »

Options for mild or moderate depression

Major depression is the most common type of mood disorder in the United States, affecting about 15 million American adults (almost 7% of the population) in a typical year. For many of those affected, symptoms are mild or moderate. One nationally representative survey of Americans with depression, for example, found that symptoms were mild in 20% of people, moderate in 50%, and severe in 30%. A meta-analysis adds to the growing evidence that antidepressants work best for people with severe symptoms of depression, as we've reported before. But this latest study provides a reminder that for patients newly diagnosed with milder forms of depression, it may make sense to try psychotherapy, exercise, and other nondrug treatments first. (Locked) More »

Morphine and traumatic memory

People who sustain serious and painful physical injuries are at increased risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A study of U.S. soldiers injured in Iraq — confirming the findings of two earlier studies — suggests that those who receive morphine for pain relief have a lower risk of developing PTSD later on. All of these studies were observational and cannot prove cause and effect. They also cannot answer crucial questions about the drug's mechanism of action or whether the results are applicable to other types of people at risk for PTSD (such as those who suffer an emotional rather than physical trauma). An editorial accompanying the most recent study noted, however, that together these studies suggest that alleviating pain with morphine might help lower risk of PTSD. (Locked) More »