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Bornstein RF. "The Dependent Personality: Developmental, Social,
and Clinical Perspectives," Psychological Bulletin (July 1992):
Vol. 112, No. 1, pp. 3-23.
Bornstein RF. "Implicit and Self-Attributed Dependency Needs
Independent and Histrionic Personality Disorders," Journal of
Personality Assessment (August 1998): Vol. 71, No. 1, pp. 1-14.
Bornstein RF. "The Complex Relationship between Dependency and
Domestic Violence: Converging Psychological Factors and Social
Forces," American Psychologist (September 2006): Vol. 61, No. 6,
Dependent personality disorder, in which people exhibit an
excessive need to be cared for by others, has its roots in
childhood, particularly if independence is discouraged. Typical
treatment approaches are psychodynamic or behavioral therapy.
Research found that child-on-child violence is often regarded as
insignificant, but if it occurs repeatedly in a family or school
setting, the continued proximity of the attacker can be
The questionable results of an experimental program intended to
help delinquent teenagers change their behavior illustrate the
difference between the power to produce an effect during a
controlled trial and success in a real-world setting.
According to two studies, women going through menopause are much
more likely to develop symptoms of depression, due in part to
changes in hormone production. Hormone replacement may provide
temporary relief from severe depression.
Children who experience verbal abuse are at as much risk for
developing anxiety or depression as those who are abused
physically or sexually. This may be due to the fact that verbal
abuse is likely to persist over a lengthy period of time.
Schizophrenics tend to have a higher incidence of medical
problems, possibly because their mental illness prevents them
from properly assessing their own health, or their mental health
providers are not monitoring their physical condition.
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