References for “Pain relief, opioids, and constipation”

Published: March, 2008

Ballantyne JC. "Opioid therapy for chronic pain," New England Journal of Medicine (Nov. 13, 2003), Vol. 349, No. 20, pp. 1943-53.

Becker G, et al. "Peripherally acting opioid antagonists in the treatment of opiate-related constipation," Journal of Pain and Symptom Management (Nov. 2007), Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 547-565.

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