The emptying of mental hospitals began a half-century ago with the hope that effective treatment would be available on the outside, and patients would be willing to accept it. But for many neither of those conditions has been met. Many thousands of so-called revolving-door patients consume a disproportionate share of the resources of the health care and criminal justice systems as they move between jails, prisons, emergency rooms, psychiatric hospitals, rented rooms, group homes, and the street.
At any given time, a third to half of people with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder are not receiving treatment, and a third of the homeless are mentally ill. Many are too discouraged or disorganized to take any initiative. Some will not agree to treatment because they are isolated and withdrawn, or paranoid and suspicious. Others refuse help because they wrongly believe they are doing well enough without it. Court-ordered treatment — known as outpatient commitment, mandatory outpatient treatment, or assisted outpatient treatment — has been proposed as a partial solution to this problem.