Archive for October, 2012
A report in this week’s Journal of the American Medical Association describes an outbreak of tattoo-related infections in four states: New York, Washington, Iowa, and Colorado. All involved Mycobacterium bacteria. Infection with these fast-growing bugs can cause problems ranging from a mild rash around the tattoo site to severe abscesses that require surgery and several months of antibiotic therapy. This isn’t the first such report. An outbreak in Ohio, Kentucky, and Vermont involved methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (sometimes known as MRSA), a hard-to-treat bug that can cause substantial damage to the skin and the rest of the body. Tattoo-related infections have three main sources: unsterile practices by the tattoo artist and his or shop, the ink used for tattooing, and poor after-care. Don’t hesitate to ask a tattoo artist directly what the shop’s sterilization processes are. And follow instructions afterward for caring for the tattoo.
Succulent tomatoes are far more than just a delicious fruit. Eating them may also help lower your risk of stroke, likely due to the lycopene they contain. Lycopene is a powerful antioxidant that eliminates dangerous free radicals that can damage DNA and other fragile cell structures. Past research has shown that a diet rich in lycopene-containing foods may help lower the risk of prostate and other cancers. Now, in a report just published in the journal Neurology, a team of Finnish researchers has linked higher lycopene levels in the blood to protection against stroke. The researchers suggested that lycopene, in addition to its ability to attack free radicals, may also reduce inflammation and cholesterol, improve immune function, and prevent blood from clotting. All of these may help reduce ischemic strokes, which are caused by clot-caused blockages in blood flow to the brain. It’s best to get lycopene from food—tomatoes and watermelon are excellent sources—not supplements.
Sometimes, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded for a discovery or invention that already is improving the practice of medicine and saving lives. Sometimes it is awarded for very basic research that might someday affect medical practice and human health. Such is the case with this year’s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, which was awarded to Sir John Gurdon of Great Britain and Dr. Shinya Yamanaka. If I had to put into one sentence the message of today’s Prize, it would be this: our cells are a lot smarter and more flexible than we once imagined, and capitalizing on that fact could greatly improve the treatment of many human diseases. The work of Gurdon and Yamanaka led the way to today’s work on stem cells, which could someday be used to treat human diseases. The 2012 Nobel Prize in Medicine, like many before it, demonstrates that people with the curiosity and courage to ask what appear to be ridiculous questions, and a society that supports their work, can change our world for the better.
October is Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Sponsored by national public service organizations, professional medical associations, and government agencies, it aims to make sure women all across America have the information they need to identify breast cancer early and take all of the steps needed to fight it. This year, Harvard Health Publishing, where I am the Chief Editor of Books, offers a unique contribution to Breast Cancer Awareness Month: our newest book, Hope and Healing for Your Breast Cancer Journey. This book, part of the Chicken Soup for the Soul Health series, weaves the stories of more than 25 women diagnosed with breast cancer and their family members with practical information about managing a support team, getting through treatment, healing body and soul, and more. In this post, I share a moving story from the book, “I Miss My Breasts,” written by Linda A. Fiorenzano, a project and risk management professional who was diagnosed with breast cancer at age 36.
As part of its 200th anniversary celebration, today’s New England Journal of Medicine carries an article called “The Past 200 Years in Diabetes.” It describes some of the advances made in understanding and treating this disease, like the discovery of insulin and the development of personal blood-sugar monitors. But it doesn’t tell much about how living with diabetes has changed. Just 50 years ago, checking blood sugar and administering insulin were big ordeals, and people with diabetes weren’t expected to live more than a few years after their diagnoses. today, it’s a cinch to check blood sugar with a quick finger prick, and pen-like devices almost painlessly deliver insulin, and people with diabetes who take care of themselves have almost normal life expectancies. Advances in protecting and treating the heart, eyes, kidneys, and limbs have helped reduce complications from diabetes.
Researchers at Kansas State University have developed a blood test that rapidly detects breast cancer (as well as non-small cell lung cancer) in very early stages, long before symptoms appear or the cancer can be seen by other methods. The experimental test identifies enzyme patterns that differ from one type of cancer to another. According to the researchers, the test can detect very early breast cancers (stages 0 and 1), as well as early lung cancers (stages 1 and 2), within an hour, with 95% accuracy. However, they tested only 32 participants with various stages of breast or lung cancer, as well as 12 people without cancer. Whether finding cancer that early makes a difference for treatment and survival remains to be seen.
In a car culture like ours, giving up the car keys can be a wrenching decision. Some see it as a loss of independence. For others, especially those who live in areas with poor public transportation, not driving makes it difficult to shop for groceries or see friends. But the fact is that some older people need to make that decision. Pleas from family members can sometimes do the trick. A special article in this week’s New England Journal of Medicine suggests that advice from a doctor can also help people who shouldn’t be behind the wheel any longer stop driving. There are no guidelines regarding who is fit to drive. Sadly, many people finally stop driving after they’ve crashed, or hurt someone. This is definitely a situation where “better safe than sorry” should rule.