Alzheimer's & Dementia

The word dementia means deprived of mind. It is a catchall term that covers memory loss, confusion, changes in personality, a decline in thinking skills, and dwindling ability to perform everyday activities.

There are many types of dementia. Alzheimer's disease is the most common. Half or more of people with dementia have Alzheimer's disease. It is caused by the accumulation of tangles and clumps of protein in and around brain cells. These tangles and clumps make it difficult for brain cells to communicate with one another, and can eventually kill them.

Vascular dementia, the second most common type, develops when cholesterol-clogged arteries can't deliver enough oxygen-rich blood to the brain. Sometimes small blockages completely cut off the blood supply to a part of the brain, causing nearby brain cells to die.

The terms dementia and Alzheimer's are often used interchangeably. In part, that's because it is very hard to tell them apart. Usually, a specific type of dementia can only be diagnosed by an autopsy after someone has died.

Dementia affects areas of the brain involved in learning and memory. So a common symptom is difficulty in recalling new information. Memory loss disrupts daily life. An individual with dementia may get lost in a once-familiar neighborhood. He or she may have increasing trouble making decisions, solving problems, or making good judgments. Mood and personality may change. A person with dementia can become more irritable or hostile, or lose interest in almost everything.

Once dementia has developed, it is usually hard to reverse. The goal of treatment is to manage symptoms and slow its progression. Some medications can help slow the intellectual decline in mild to moderate dementia. Psychotherapy techniques like reality orientation and memory retraining can also help people with this condition.

A small percentage of people with dementia develop the condition because of medical issues such as an underactive thyroid gland, an infection, not getting enough vitamin B12, medication side effects, or drinking too much alcohol. In these cases, treating the underlying cause can reverse the dementia.

Alzheimer's & Dementia Articles

Amyloidosis

Amyloidosis is a disease in which an abnormal protein called amyloid accumulates in body tissues and organs. The protein deposits can be in a single organ or dispersed throughout the body. The disease causes serious problems in the affected areas. As a result, people with amyloidosis in different body parts may experience different physical problems: Brain - Dementia Heart - Heart failure, an irregular or unstable heart rhythm, enlarged heart Kidneys - Kidney failure, protein in the urine Nervous system - Numbness, tingling or weakness from nerve disease Digestive system - Intestinal bleeding, intestinal obstruction, poor nutrient absorption Blood - Low blood counts, easy bruising or bleeding Pancreas - Diabetes Musculoskeletal system - Joint pain or swelling, weakness Skin - Lumps or purple discoloration No one knows what causes amyloidosis. To make matters more complex, amyloidosis is not a single disease, and there are many different types of amyloid protein's that can be involved. For example, Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (a rare cause of dementia linked to viruses living in livestock) are two distinct conditions characterized by amyloid deposits in the brain, but the proteins involved are different. (Locked) More »

Alzheimer's Disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a loss of brain functions that worsens over time. It is a form of dementia. Alzheimer's disease damages the brain's intellectual functions. Short term memory often is affected early. Gradually other intellectual functions deteriorate. Judgment becomes impaired. Most people with advanced AD lose their ability to do normal daily activities. Alzheimer's usually begins after age 60. Occasionally, it affects younger people. Scientists are uncertain about what causes the symptoms of AD. Alzheimer's patients develop excessive deposits of two proteins in their brains. Researchers believe that these proteins distort communication between brain cells. A chemical called acetylcholine may also be involved. It helps transmit messages between brain cells. Levels of acetylcholine begin to drop in patients with AD. This may add to the communication problems between brain cells. Eventually, brain cells themselves are affected. They begin to shrivel and die. The following factors may increase your risk of Alzheimer's disease: Age. Risk increases with age. Family history. If members of your family, especially parents or siblings, have or had AD, your risk increases. Genetic factors. Inheriting certain genes increases your risk.   More »

Sleep apnea increases dementia risk in older women

More than half of adults ages 65 and over have sleep apnea, a disorder characterized by abnormal pauses in breathing during sleep. Chronic sleep apnea is associated with many health risks, including high blood pressure, heart disease, and stroke. Older women with sleep apnea may be at higher risk of developing cognitive problems and dementia. (Locked) More »

Regular exercise may ward off cognitive decline in women with vascular disease

A study provides one more reason to carve out time every day for a brisk walk or similar exercise, especially if you have vascular disease or are at risk for developing it. Vascular disease, including heart disease and other conditions that affect blood vessels, increases the risk of age-related problems with memory and thinking, known as cognitive decline. (Locked) More »

Diagnosing Alzheimer’s disease

Doctors take a two-pronged approach to diagnosing Alzheimer's disease. First, they ask patients questions and perhaps have them fill out one of the standardized questionnaires used to assess memory and other parts of thinking. The purpose is to evaluate people's cognitive problems to see if what they're experiencing is consistent with Alzheimer's. Second, doctors will order various tests to rule out other conditions that can affect mental functioning. Any CT or MRI brain scans or blood tests that might be done are part of this process of elimination. There is no direct test for Alzheimer's, or for the risk of developing it, in the way that, say, a blood sugar test can be used to assess whether someone has diabetes. (Locked) More »

Berry good for health

Berries contain antioxidants, vitamins, and a generous amount of fiber, making them an excellent component of a more healthful diet. Evidence for berries having health benefits has come from three sorts of studies. First, a variety of lab and animal experiments have shown that berries or their extracts halt or interfere with disease processes of various kinds. A typical example is a report in 2010 that a blueberry extract protected rat brain cells from the toxic effects of a protein that has been linked to Alzheimer's disease. Second, short-term studies in people have demonstrated positive effects on cholesterol profiles, blood sugar levels, and the like. And third, a handful of epidemiologic studies point to a correlation between high berry consumption and some favorable health outcomes. (Locked) More »

Diagnosing Alzheimer's disease

New guidelines for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease aim to identify changes in the brain that are associated with the development of the disease. The guidelines put a new emphasis on tests that measure changes in the brain that are, at the very least, associated with Alzheimer's disease and may play a role in causing it. These tests — grouped under the heading "biomarkers" — include positron emission tomography (PET) scans of the brain as well as tests of the cerebrospinal fluid, which surrounds the brain and spine and may contain clues to what is going on in the brain. No one is saying that the tests can be used by themselves to diagnose Alzheimer's. But there's the suggestion in the guidelines that PET scans and other tests could be used to improve predictions about whether someone with mild cognitive impairment is going to develop full-fledged dementia. They might also be used to make the diagnosis of dementia due to Alzheimer's more reliable. More »

New Alzheimer's guidelines define early stages of the disease

More than five million people in the United States have been diagnosed with AD. By 2050, barring breakthroughs in prevention or treatment, about 16 million will be affected. New guidelines for diagnosing Alzheimer's disease are intended to support the emerging theory that the disease is present in the body long before it manifests in diminished cognitive capacity. (Locked) More »

Alzheimer’s and driving ability

As people grow older, their vision, hearing, reflexes, strength, flexibility, and coordination tend to deteriorate. These physical changes can undermine driving skills, such as being able to see and hear other vehicles, stop suddenly, navigate an intersection safely, or maintain control of a car. Alzheimer's disease only compounds age-related challenges by impairing memory, insight, and reasoning. As Alzheimer's progresses, for instance, a patient may have trouble remembering how to get somewhere, or may become confused (such as stopping at a green light or stepping on the gas pedal instead of the brake). Although most experts agree that anyone with moderate to severe Alzheimer's or another dementia should stop driving, no consensus exists about patients at earlier stages of cognitive decline. The American Academy of Neurology and the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry both recommend that patients with mild dementia stop driving. The Alzheimer's Association, however, believes that the determination should be based on driving ability rather than a medical diagnosis. More »