References for "Obsessions and compulsions in youths"

Franklin ME, et al. "Cognitive Behavior Therapy Augmentation of Pharmacotherapy in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Pediatric OCD Treatment Study II (POTS II) Randomized Controlled Trial." Journal of the American Medical Association (Sept. 21, 2011): Vol. 306, No. 11, pp. 1224–32. O'Kearney RT, et al. "Behavioural and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder in Children and Adolescents," Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (Oct., 18, 2006): Doc. No. CD004856. Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) Team. "Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, Sertraline, and Their Combination for Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: The Pediatric OCD Treatment Study (POTS) Randomized Controlled Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association (Oct. 27, 2004) : Vol. 292, No. 16, pp. 1969–76. (Locked) More »

References for "Recognizing and managing delirium"

Flaherty JH. "The Evaluation and Management of Delirium Among Older Persons," Medical Clinics of North America (May 2011): Vol. 95, No. 3, pp. 555-77. Inouye SK, et al. "The Hospital Elder Life Program: A Model of Care to Prevent Cognitive and Functional Decline in Older Hospitalized Patients," Journal of the American Geriatric Society (Dec. 2000): Vol. 48, No. 12, pp. 1697-706. Marcantonio ER. "In the Clinic: Delirium," Annals of Internal Medicine (June 7, 2011): Vol. 154, No. 11, electronic publication. (Locked) More »

References for "Schizophrenia and epilepsy"

Cascella NG, et al. "Schizophrenia and Epilepsy: Is There a Shared Susceptibility?" Neuroscience Research (April 2009): Vol. 63, No. 4, pp. 227–35. Chang YT, et al. "Bidirectional Relation Between Schizophrenia and Epilepsy: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study," Epilepsia (Sep. 19, 2011), electronic publication ahead of print. Keshavan MS, et al. "Schizophrenia, 'Just the Facts' 6. Moving Ahead with the Schizophrenia Concept: From the Elephant to the Mouse," Schizophrenia Research (April 2011): Vol. 127, No. 1–3, pp. 3–13. (Locked) More »

Obsessions and compulsions in youths

It is normal for many children, at various stages of development, to be concerned about symmetry and having things perfect, to insist on certain bedtime routines, or to develop superstitions and rituals like avoiding cracks in the sidewalk. But when such beliefs or behaviors become all-consuming and start interfering with school, home life, or recreational activities, the problem may be obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The disorder usually originates in childhood or adolescence, with symptoms appearing as early as age 3. Childhood OCD is more common in boys than in girls. Obsessions are irrational thoughts, images, and impulses that are felt as unrealistic, intrusive, and unwanted. In children, obsessions may govern how toys or other personal belongings are arranged in the playroom. In teenagers, thoughts and impulses may give rise to fears of contamination or excessive concern with religious rituals, such as praying constantly. To relieve the anxiety caused by these obsessions, youths of all ages may engage in compulsive rituals such as buttoning and unbuttoning a shirt dozens of times before wearing it. Even young children often know that their obsessions are senseless, but they may be helpless to stop themselves. If youths try to avoid the situations that provoke the behavior, their lives may become increasingly restricted. As a result, they may become demoralized, and their development may be interrupted. More »

Schizophrenia and epilepsy

Evidence suggests that these two brain disorders may share biological roots. Auditory hallucinations. Unusual feelings or sensations. Dreamlike alterations in consciousness. These can be symptoms of both schizophrenia and epilepsy. Evidence continues to accumulate that the two brain disorders overlap in ways that researchers are still trying to understand. In a paper, researchers at the China Medical University in Taiwan analyzed medical records stored in a national registry to determine how many people initially diagnosed with schizophrenia later developed epilepsy — and vice versa. The results suggest that people who develop one of these disorders are at heightened risk for the other. People with schizophrenia were nearly six times as likely to develop epilepsy compared with other people, while individuals with epilepsy were nearly eight times as likely to develop schizophrenia compared with other people. The findings add to earlier evidence that schizophrenia and epilepsy often occur in tandem. Although all of these studies are observational — meaning they can detect patterns but not prove cause and effect — they suggest that schizophrenia and epilepsy may share biological roots. The factors that contribute to both disorders likely consist of some mix of genetic changes and environmental insults. (Locked) More »

Recognizing and managing delirium

During illness, hospitalization, or recovery, some people experience delirium, a rapidly developing and severe confusion accompanied by altered consciousness and an inability to focus. It's one of the most common complications of hospitalization among older people, affecting as many as 20% of those ages 65 and over who are admitted to hospitals. There are different types of delirium. In hyperactive delirium, people may become agitated, noisy, prone to hallucination, and possibly belligerent. This type of delirium is more typical of withdrawal from alcohol or psychoactive drugs, but occurs relatively rarely in people who have delirium related to illness or hospitalization. Far more common is hypoactive delirium, in which the patient may be equally disoriented but is withdrawn, drowsy, or difficult to wake. Some patients also fluctuate between the two states. The first step in treatment is identifying the underlying cause or causes.  (Locked) More »

Taming the frenzy in your brain

According to the book Organize Your Mind, Organize Your Life, the key to a less hectic, less stressful life is not simply to become more organized, but to change the way you think. The authors are Dr. Paul Hammerness, assistant professor of psychiatry and a researcher in brain sciences at Massachusetts General Hospital, and Margaret Moore, co-director of the Institute of Coaching at McLean Hospital — both Harvard-affiliated institutions. In their book, Dr. Hammerness and Ms. Moore explore the latest brain science underlying organization and offer tips about how to use the innate organizational power of your brain to make your life less stressful, more productive, and ultimately more rewarding. (Locked) More »

Ask the doctor: What is interpersonal therapy?

I got divorced a few months ago. Recently I was diagnosed with depression. A friend suggested I try interpersonal therapy. She thinks the problem is my relationship with my former husband. I'd never heard of this therapy. Could you tell me more about it? (Locked) More »