References for "New insights into treatment-resistant depression"

Gaynes BN, et al. "The STAR*D Study: Treating Depression in the Real World," Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine (Jan. 2008): Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 57–66. Perlis RH, et al. "Association Between Bipolar Spectrum Features and Treatment Outcomes in Outpatients with Major Depressive Disorder," Archives of General Psychiatry (Dec. 6, 2010): Electronic publication ahead of print. Zimmerman M, et al. "Is Bipolar Disorder Overdiagnosed?" Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (June 2008): Vol. 69, No. 6, pp. 935–40. (Locked) More »

References for "Options for managing conduct disorder"

Boden JM, et al. "Risk Factors for Conduct Disorder and Oppositional/Defiant Disorder: Evidence from a New Zealand Birth Cohort," Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Nov. 2010): Vol. 49, No. 11, pp. 1125–33. Connor DF, et al. "A Review of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Complicated by Symptoms of Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder," Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics (June 2010): Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 427–40. Diamond G, et al. "Family-Based Treatment Research: A 10-Year Update," Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (Sept. 2005): Vol. 44, No. 9, pp. 872–87. (Locked) More »

References for "Understanding the stress response"

Azarbad L, et al. "Obesity in Women," Psychiatric Clinics of North America (June 2010): Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 423–40. Dallman MF, et al. "Chronic Stress and Obesity: A New View of 'Comfort Food,'" Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Sept. 30, 2003): Vol. 100, No. 20, pp. 11,696–701. Dusek JA, et al. "Stress Management Versus Lifestyle Modification on Systolic Hypertension and Medication Elimination: A Randomized Trial," Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (March 2008): Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 129–38. (Locked) More »

Options for managing conduct disorder

All children and adolescents act out occasionally, but those with conduct disorder consistently behave in unusually aggressive ways — sometimes resulting in property damage or physical injury. A review identified 16 psychosocial treatments that are likely to be effective for disruptive behavior in children and adolescents. Most of the effective interventions involved parents or other caregivers as well as the child. One popular approach is known as parent management training, which focuses on helping parents to better manage the child's behavior. A related model is known as behavioral family therapy. Therapists using this approach not only work with parents to modify a child's behavior, but also help them learn stress-reduction techniques, understand how a child's temperament can affect behavior, and recognize their own ways of thinking about the child's behavior. Medications and other therapies tend to be less effective, but may be helpful for some children.  (Locked) More »

Understanding the stress response

A stressful situation can trigger a cascade of stress hormones that produce well-orchestrated physiological changes. A stressful incident can make the heart pound and breathing quicken. Muscles tense and beads of sweat appear. This combination of reactions to stress is also known as the "fight-or-flight" response because it evolved as a survival mechanism, enabling people and other mammals to react quickly to life-threatening situations. The carefully orchestrated yet near-instantaneous sequence of hormonal changes and physiological responses helps someone to fight the threat off or flee to safety. Unfortunately, the body can also overreact to stressors that are not life-threatening, such as traffic jams, work pressure, and family difficulties. Over the years, researchers have learned not only how and why these reactions occur, but have also gained insight into the long-term effects stress has on physical and psychological health. Over time, repeated activation of the stress response takes a toll on the body. Research suggests that prolonged stress contributes to high blood pressure, promotes the formation of artery-clogging deposits, and causes brain changes that may contribute to anxiety, depression, and addiction. More preliminary research suggests that chronic stress may also contribute to obesity, both through direct mechanisms (causing people to eat more) or indirectly (decreasing sleep and exercise). More »

New insights into treatment-resistant depression

Only one-third of patients with major depression achieve remission after trying one antidepressant. When the first medication doesn't adequately relieve symptoms, next-step options include adding a new drug to the first or switching to another drug. With time and persistence, nearly seven in 10 adult patients with major depression eventually find a treatment that works. Of course, that also means that the remaining one-third of patients with major depression cannot achieve remission even after trying multiple options. Experts are hunting for ways to understand the cause of persistent symptoms. In recent years, one theory in particular has gained traction — that many people with hard-to-treat major depression actually suffer from bipolar disorder. However, a paper suggests otherwise, and the findings provide new insights into the nature of treatment-resistant depression. (Locked) More »