References for "Anxiety and heart disease"

Frasure-Smith N, et al. "Depression and Anxiety as Predictors of 2-Year Cardiac Events in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease," Archives of General Psychiatry (Jan. 2008): Vol. 65, No. 1, pp. 62–71. Kessler RC, et al. "The Descriptive Epidemiology of Commonly Occurring Mental Disorders in the United States," Annual Review of Public Health (2008): Vol. 29, pp. 115–29. Lynch P, et al. "Panic in the Emergency Room," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry (July 2003): Vol. 48, No. 6, pp. 361–66. (Locked) More »

References for "Mental illness and violence"

Elbogen EB, et al. "The Intricate Link Between Violence and Mental Disorder: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions," Archives of General Psychiatry (Feb. 2009): Vol. 66, No. 2, pp. 152–61. Elbogen EB, et al. "Treatment Engagement and Violence Risk in Mental Disorders," British Journal of Psychiatry (Oct. 2006): Vol. 189, pp. 354–60. Fazel S, et al. "Bipolar Disorder and Violent Crime: New Evidence from Population-Based Longitudinal Studies and Systematic Review," Archives of General Psychiatry (Sept. 2010): Vol. 67, No. 9, pp. 931–38. (Locked) More »

References for "Painkillers fuel growth in drug addiction"

Blanco C, et al. "Changes in the Prevalence of Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use and Drug Use Disorders in the United States: 1991–1992 and 2001–2002," Drug and Alcohol Dependence (Oct. 8, 2007): Vol. 90, No. 2–3, pp. 252–60. Brady KT, et al., eds. Women and Addiction: A Comprehensive Handbook (The Guilford Press, 2009). Carinci AJ, et al. "Pain and Opioid Addiction: What is the Connection?" Current Pain and Headache Reports (Feb. 2010): Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 17–21. (Locked) More »

Mental illness and violence

Public opinion surveys suggest that many people think mental illness and violence go hand in hand. A 2006 national survey found, for example, that 60% of Americans thought that people with schizophrenia were likely to act violently toward someone else, while 32% thought that people with major depression were likely to do so. In fact, research suggests that this public perception does not reflect reality. Most individuals with psychiatric disorders are not violent. Although a subset of people with psychiatric disorders commit assaults and violent crimes, findings have been inconsistent about how much mental illness contributes to this behavior and how much substance abuse and other factors do. An ongoing problem in the scientific literature is that studies have used different methods to assess rates of violence — both in people with mental illness and in control groups used for comparison. Some studies rely on "self-reporting," or participants' own recollection of whether they have acted violently toward others. Such studies may underestimate rates of violence for several reasons. Participants may forget what they did in the past, or may be embarrassed about or unwilling to admit to violent behavior. Other studies have compared data from the criminal justice system, such as arrest rates among people with mental illness and those without. But these studies, by definition involving a subset of people, may also misstate rates of violence in the community. Finally, some studies have not controlled for the multiple variables beyond substance abuse that contribute to violent behavior (whether an individual is mentally ill or not), such as poverty, family history, personal adversity or stress, and so on. More »

Painkillers fuel growth in drug addiction

The issue of painkiller addiction is receiving more attention because prescriptions for opioids have increased tenfold since 1990. Paralleling this trend, the number of people addicted to painkillers has also increased over time. Columbia University researchers found that opioid addiction had tripled over a 10-year period, with the proportion of Americans reporting abuse or dependence increasing from 0.1% of the population in 1991–92 to 0.3% in 2001–02. The 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that nearly two million Americans were dependent on or abusing prescription pain relievers — nearly twice as great as the number of people addicted to cocaine. According to the latest statistics compiled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2007 painkillers killed twice as many people as cocaine and five times as many as heroin. Opioid painkiller addiction was also more common than abuse of or dependence on any other type of prescription drug. More »

Anxiety and heart disease

While there is a well-known relationship between major depression and cardiovascular disease, much less is known about how anxiety disorders affect the heart. Various studies have found that 24% to 31% of patients with cardiovascular disease have symptoms of anxiety. Moreover, severe anxiety — which may manifest as a panic attack — can mimic a heart attack. One analysis of studies involving people admitted to emergency rooms for chest pain found that 22% of those who underwent cardiovascular testing had panic disorder rather than heart disease. Most research on anxiety and heart disease is flawed, relying on participants' recollections or single objective "snapshot" assessments rather than using structured interviews to diagnose anxiety. Many studies have also lacked controls for factors such as lifestyle that could affect heart disease risk. Two prospective studies followed large numbers of participants over time to better examine the relationship between heart disease and one of the most common anxiety disorders, generalized anxiety disorder — characterized by constant and pervasive anxiety, even about mundane matters. A particular strength of these studies is that they controlled for confounding factors such as major depression (which often occurs in conjunction with anxiety) and demographic and lifestyle factors that affect heart disease risk. Both suggest that generalized anxiety disorder may indeed increase risk of heart attacks and other adverse events. (Locked) More »