References for "Cognitive enhancement therapy for schizophrenia"

McGurk SR, et al. "A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia," American Journal of Psychiatry (Dec. 2007): Vol. 164, No. 12, pp. 1791–802. Eack SM, et al. "Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Early-Course Schizophrenia: Effects of a Two-Year Randomized Controlled Trial," Psychiatric Services (Nov. 2009): Vol. 60, No. 11, pp. 1468–76. Eack SM, et al. "One-Year Durability of the Effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy on Functional Outcome in Early Schizophrenia," Schizophrenia Research (July 2010): Vol. 120, No. 1-3, pp. 210–16. \ (Locked) More »

References for "Managing dental phobia"

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Dionne RA, et al., eds. Management of Pain and Anxiety in the Dental Office (W.B. Saunders Company, 2002). Loggia ML, et al. "Effects of Psychological State on Pain Perception in the Dental Environment," Journal of the Canadian Dental Association (Sept. 2008): Vol. 74, No. 7, pp. 651–56. (Locked) More »

References for "Second step treatments for adolescent depression"

Brent D, et al. "Switching to Another SSRI or to Venlafaxine with or without Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents with SSRI-Resistant Depression: The TORDIA Randomized Controlled Trial," Journal of the American Medical Association (Feb. 27, 2008): Vol. 299, No. 8, pp. 901–13. Emslie GJ, et al. "Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA): Week 24 Outcomes," American Journal of Psychiatry (July 2010): Vol. 167, No. 7, pp. 782–91. Goodyer IM, et al. "A Randomised Controlled Trial of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Adolescents with Major Depression Treated by Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. The ADAPT Trial," Health Technology Assessment (May 2008): Vol. 12, No. 14, pp. iii–iv, ix–60. (Locked) More »

References for "Violent video games and young people"

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Children and Video Games: Playing with Violence (Facts for Families, updated Aug. 2006). American Academy of Pediatrics. "Policy Statement—Media Violence," Pediatrics (Nov. 2009): Vol. 124, No. 5, pp. 1495–503. Anderson CA. "An Update on the Effects of Playing Violent Video Games," Journal of Adolescence (Feb. 2004): Vol. 27, No. 1, pp. 113–22. (Locked) More »

Violent video games and young people

Blood and gore. Intense violence. Strong sexual content. Use of drugs. These are just a few of the phrases that the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB) uses to describe the content of several games in the Grand Theft Auto series, one of the most popular video game series among teenagers. The Pew Research Center reported in 2008 that 97% of youths ages 12 to 17 played some type of video game, and that two-thirds of them played action and adventure games that tend to contain violent content. (Other research suggests that boys are more likely to use violent video games, and play them more frequently, than girls.) A separate analysis found that more than half of all video games rated by the ESRB contained violence, including more than 90% of those rated as appropriate for children 10 years or older. Given how common these games are, it is small wonder that mental health clinicians often find themselves fielding questions from parents who are worried about the impact of violent video games on their children. The view endorsed by organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) is that exposure to violent media (including video games) can contribute to real-life violent behavior and harm children in other ways. But other researchers have questioned the validity or applicability of much of the research supporting this view. They argue that most youths are not affected by violent video games. What both sides of this debate agree on is that it is possible for parents to take steps that limit the possible negative effects of video games. More »

Cognitive enhancement therapy for schizophrenia

Difficulties in thinking and socializing, known as "negative" symptoms, often develop in patients with schizophrenia and typically persist even after hallucinations, delusions, and other "positive" symptoms of the disorder are under control. Various types of cognitive remediation therapies exist to improve mental and social functioning, but most have been studied only in patients with chronic schizophrenia. In a study testing a cognitive intervention earlier in the schizophrenia disease process, researchers at the University of Pittsburgh published a series of papers about a randomized controlled trial evaluating a hybrid therapy, cognitive enhancement therapy, that combines cognitive remediation techniques with social skills training. The core study involved 58 young adult outpatients (the average age was 26) who were diagnosed either with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Patients had experienced their first psychotic symptom an average of three years prior to entry into the study; nearly 80% had been ill for fewer than five years. All had symptoms under control as the study began and continued taking their antipsychotic medications. (Locked) More »

Managing dental phobia

Surveys report that 13% to 24% of people are afraid of going to the dentist. In most cases, dental anxiety is unpleasant but does not interfere with health. People whose dental fear is severe, however, may so dread the thought of going to the dentist that they cancel appointments, delay seeking care, and sometimes wind up needing more invasive and painful procedures as a result. About half of adults who suffer from dental phobia can trace their fears back to unpleasant childhood experiences — memories that may be triggered at the sight of a dentist's chair, the sound of a dental drill, or the smell of antiseptic chemicals. Although medications such as diazepam (Valium) and lorazepam (Ativan) may help reduce anxiety, they are best used in conjunction with various cognitive, educational, and behavioral strategies — especially those that help patients gain a sense of control in a situation where they may feel helpless. The following techniques are easy to learn, get better with practice, and can be combined during a dental visit. (Locked) More »

Second-step treatments for adolescent depression

The TORDIA study suggests options when initial drug treatment fails. After six months of treatment with either an antidepressant or psychotherapy, about 60% of adolescents newly diagnosed with major depression attain remission. The Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) study was designed to determine how best to treat those youths who have not obtained adequate relief after one medication. This government-funded randomized controlled trial enrolled 334 youths ages 12 to 18, newly diagnosed with major depression or dysthymia, who had not responded sufficiently to at least eight weeks of initial treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). (Locked) More »