References for "Get the lead out"

Bouchard MF, et al. "Blood Lead Levels and Major Depressive Disorder, Panic Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder in U.S. Young Adults," Archives of General Psychiatry (Dec. 2009): Vol. 66, No. 12, pp. 1313–9. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), "Childhood Lead Poisoning," accessed online at CDC, "Prevention Tips," accessed online at (Locked) More »

References for "Neurofeedback for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder"

"A 14-Month Randomized Clinical Trial of Treatment Strategies for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. The MTA Cooperative Group. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD," Archives of General Psychiatry (Dec. 1999): Vol. 56, No. 12, pp. 1073–86. Arns M, et al. "Efficacy of Neurofeedback Treatment in ADHD: The Effects on Inattention, Impulsivity and Hyperactivity: A Meta-Analysis," Clinical EEG Neuroscience (July 2009): Vol. 40, No. 3, pp. 180–89. Beauregard M, et al. "Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Investigation of the Effects of Neurofeedback Training on the Neural Bases of Selective Attention and Response Inhibition in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder," Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (March 2006): Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 3–20. (Locked) More »

References for "Treating social anxiety disorder"

Jorstad-Stein EC, et al. "Social Phobia: An Update on Treatment," Psychiatric Clinics of North America (Sept. 2009): Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 641–63. Kessler RC, et al. "The Impact of Psychiatric Disorders on Work Loss Days," Psychological Medicine (July 1997): Vol. 27, No. 4, pp. 861–73. Phan KL, et al. "Association Between Amygdala Hyperactivity to Harsh Faces and Severity of Social Anxiety in Generalized Social Phobia," Biological Psychiatry (March 1, 2006): Vol. 59, No. 5, pp. 424–29. (Locked) More »

Treating social anxiety disorder

Social anxiety disorder (also known as social phobia) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders. Although sometimes dismissed as shyness, social anxiety disorder can cause crippling fear that interferes with school attendance, work performance, and relationships. It affects about 7% of Americans in any given year, and about 12% at some point in their lives. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) lists criteria for diagnosing social anxiety disorder and describes how the disorder may manifest differently in children and adults. About half of the people with this disorder experience anxiety only in specific situations, particularly those involving some type of public performance such as speaking in front of people. Others have the generalized form, experiencing fear in almost any social situation. Although many people occasionally get nervous at parties or at other public events, what distinguishes social anxiety disorder is the severity of distress and impairment that result. For example, research suggests that youths with this disorder are more likely than peers to drop out of high school. Adults with social anxiety disorder are more likely than others to miss work. Even intimate relationships are affected — one reason that people with social anxiety disorder are less likely than others to marry. Yet because the symptoms are often dismissed as trivial, only about half of people with social anxiety disorder ever receive treatment — typically after experiencing symptoms for at least 10 years before seeking help. That's unfortunate, because both psychotherapy and medication can help reduce symptoms for most people. (Locked) More »

Neurofeedback for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Neurofeedback is an investigational therapy being tested and marketed for a variety of psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. Most of the research on neurofeedback has evaluated its use for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although sometimes likened to physical therapy for the brain, neurofeedback is actually a form of biofeedback. The goal is to help a patient learn how to control an unconscious physiological function — in this case, electrical activity in the brain. In psychological terms, neurofeedback attempts operant conditioning, in which a person learns to modify behavior based on rewards and other consequences. About two dozen studies have been published about neurofeedback for ADHD, and many have reported promising results. But most of them involved only small numbers of patients, were not randomized, and lacked a placebo intervention. As such, they lacked controls for confounding mechanisms such as attention training or bias on the part of investigators or participants. Only three randomized controlled studies have been published on neurofeedback for ADHD and are available through Medline. The most recent, also the best designed, reported positive results, although questions remain. (Locked) More »

Get the lead out

The level of lead in the blood of Americans has decreased dramatically since the 1970s, but research is suggesting that even low-level exposure may result in learning and behavior problems in children. (Locked) More »