Skip to content
American Psychiatric Association Work Group on Bipolar Disorder.
Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients with Bipolar
Disorder (Revision). American Psychiatric Association, 2002.
Belmaker RH. "Bipolar Disorder," New England Journal of Medicine
(July 29, 2004): Vol. 351, No. 5, pp. 476-86.
Citrome L, et al. "Toward Convergence in the Medication Treatment
of Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia," Harvard Review of
Psychiatry (January-February 2005): Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 28-39.
Blumer D, et al. "Interictal Dysphoric Disorder: Recognition,
Pathogenesis, and Treatment of the Major Psychiatric Disorder of
Epilepsy," Epilepsy and Behavior (December 2004): Vol. 5, No. 6,
Chang BS, et al. "Epilepsy," New England Journal Of Medicine
(September 25, 2003): Vol. 349, No. 13, pp. 1257-66.
Dunn DW, et al. "Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of
Psychiatric Disorders in Children and Adolescents with Epilepsy,"
Epilepsy and Behavior (October 2004): Vol. 5, Suppl. 3, pp.
At one time, bipolar disorder was treatable only with lithium.
Now several categries of drugs are used, frequently in
combination, to treat symptoms and prevent them from reoccuring.
Although not a psychiatric disorder, epilepsy has a psychiatric
aspect. The link is manifested in similar, often overlapping,
symptoms, so it is important that caregivers diagnose and treat
their patients with care.
An analysis of studies shows that treatment of childhood
depression with psychotherapy is not necessarily more effective
than other methods not involving therapy.
Personality changes in adults are most likely to happen during
the earlier adult years, up to around age 40.
A nine-year study shows that caring for a physically or mentally
ill spouse is particularly stressful, and affects the physical
and mental health of the caregiver.