Harvard Health Letter

References for “Pain relief, opioids, and constipation”

Ballantyne JC. "Opioid therapy for chronic pain," New England Journal of Medicine (Nov. 13, 2003), Vol. 349, No. 20, pp. 1943-53.

Becker G, et al. "Peripherally acting opioid antagonists in the treatment of opiate-related constipation," Journal of Pain and Symptom Management (Nov. 2007), Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 547-565.

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