Harvard Health Letter

References for “Pain relief, opioids, and constipation”

Ballantyne JC. "Opioid therapy for chronic pain," New England Journal of Medicine (Nov. 13, 2003), Vol. 349, No. 20, pp. 1943-53.

Becker G, et al. "Peripherally acting opioid antagonists in the treatment of opiate-related constipation," Journal of Pain and Symptom Management (Nov. 2007), Vol. 34, No. 5, pp. 547-565.

Gershwin ME, Hamilton ME. "Treatment of Pain," in The Pain Management Handbook: A Concise Guide to Disease and Treatment, Humana Press, 1998.

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