Should you take aspirin to prevent a heart attack? According to a new study, aspirin helps lower cardiovascular risk, but whether or not you should take it depends on a bevy of factors.
The study, published in the May 9, 2002, issue of the New England Journal of Medicine, analyzes the major trials on the subject. Four out of five of the randomized trials show a reduction in cardiovascular events (especially heart attacks) with aspirin use. (In randomized trials, researchers randomly assign patients to one of the treatments being tested.) But the studies' statistics vary wildly. For example, risk reduction ranged from 4%44%, depending on the study. All but one trial showed that aspirin use increased the risk of bleeding, most commonly in the stomach.
Two large observational studies also showed that aspirin use decreased coronary events in both people with and without heart disease. (In observational studies, researchers simply monitor subjects' behaviors and health, they do not test a specific treatment on them.) Subjects' ages had an impact in both studies, with aspirin's benefit on the heart kicking in when subjects hit 50 years old in one, 60 years old in the other. Other trials have found that aspirin has the greatest effect on patients with high risk for heart disease.
So what should you do? That depends a lot on your heart disease risk. To calculate your risk go to this downloadable scoring system on the National Institutes of Health Web site.
Then, if you answer yes to any of these questions, talk to your doctor about starting aspirin therapy:
- Is your risk for heart disease 1.5% or higher per year?
Is your risk between 0.7% and 1.4% per year? If so, and you answer yes to one or more of the following questions, ask your doctor about treatment:
- Are you in poor physical shape?
- Do you have diabetes or high blood pressure and damage to your organs?
- Do you strongly want to start aspirin therapy?
But if your risk is 0.6% or lower per year, you're probably not a good candidate for aspirin therapy. You should also avoid the therapy if you're allergic to aspirin, prone to bleeding, or suffer from platelet disorders or ulcers. Your own preference is another important factor in making this decision.
Keep in mind that if you have high blood pressure, you'll need to take extra care to control it in order to get the most benefits from aspirin. Also, besides stomach bleeding, aspirin use may cause hemorrhagic stroke.
July 2002 Update