Relaxation techniques: Breath control helps quell errant
Most of us are familiar with the term “fight or flight,” also
known as the stress response. It’s what the body does as it prepares
to confront or avoid danger. When appropriately invoked, the stress response
helps us rise to many challenges. But trouble starts when this response
is constantly provoked by less momentous, day-to-day events, such as
money woes, traffic jams, job worries, or relationship problems.
Health problems are one result. A prime example is high blood pressure,
a major risk factor for heart disease. The stress response also suppresses
the immune system, increasing susceptibility to colds and other illnesses.
Moreover, the buildup of stress can contribute to anxiety and depression.
We can’t avoid all sources of stress in our lives, nor would we
want to. But we can develop healthier ways of responding to them. One
way is to invoke the relaxation response, through a technique first developed
in the 1970s at Harvard Medical School by cardiologist Dr. Herbert Benson.
The relaxation response is a state of profound rest that can be elicited
in many ways, including meditation, yoga, and progressive muscle relaxation.
Breath focus is a common feature of several techniques that evoke the
relaxation response. The first step is learning to breathe deeply.
The benefits of deep breathing
Deep breathing also goes by the names of diaphragmatic breathing, abdominal
breathing, belly breathing, and paced respiration. When you breathe deeply,
the air coming in through your nose fully fills your lungs, and the lower
For many of us, deep breathing seems unnatural. There are several reasons
for this. For one, body image has a negative impact on respiration in
our culture. A flat stomach is considered attractive, so women (and men)
tend to hold in their stomach muscles. This interferes with deep breathing
and gradually makes shallow “chest breathing” seem normal,
which increases tension and anxiety.
Shallow breathing limits the diaphragm’s range of motion. The
lowest part of the lungs doesn’t get a full share of oxygenated
air. That can make you feel short of breath and anxious.
Deep abdominal breathing encourages full oxygen exchange — that
is, the beneficial trade of incoming oxygen for outgoing carbon dioxide.
Not surprisingly, it can slow the heartbeat and lower or stabilize blood
Practicing breath focus
Breath focus helps you concentrate on slow, deep breathing and aids
you in disengaging from distracting thoughts and sensations. It’s
especially helpful if you tend to hold in your stomach.
First steps. Find a quiet, comfortable place
to sit or lie down. First, take a normal breath. Then try a deep breath:
Breathe in slowly through your nose, allowing your chest and lower belly
to rise as you fill your lungs. Let your abdomen expand fully. Now breathe
out slowly through your mouth (or your nose, if that feels more natural).
Breath focus in practice. Once you’ve
taken the steps above, you can move on to regular practice of breath
focus. As you sit comfortably with your eyes closed, blend deep breathing
with helpful imagery and perhaps a focus word or phrase that helps you
Ways to elicit the relaxation response
Several techniques can help you turn down your response to stress.
Breath focus helps with nearly all of them:
- Progressive muscle relaxation
- Mindfulness meditation
- Yoga, tai chi, and Qi Gong
- Repetitive prayer
- Guided imagery
Creating a routine
You may want to try several different relaxation techniques to see which
one works best for you. And if your favorite approach fails to engage
you, or you want some variety, you’ll have alternatives. You may
also find the following tips helpful:
- Choose a special place where you can sit (or lie down) comfortably
- Don’t try too hard. That may just cause you to tense up.
- Don’t be too passive, either. The key to eliciting the relaxation
response lies in shifting your focus from stressors to deeper, calmer
rhythms — and having a focal point is essential.
- Try to practice once or twice a day, always at the same time, in
order to enhance the sense of ritual and establish a habit.
- Try to practice at least 10–20 minutes each day.
October 2006 Update
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