Return to Chapter Index
Antioxidants May Decrease Risk of Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a complex disease that spreads through
the brain. It affects some 4 million Americans, causing memory loss,
impaired thinking, and changes in personality. Scientists have suspected
that substances called antioxidants — vitamin C, vitamin E, and
beta carotene, for example — may guard against AD. However, studies
testing the relationship between antioxidant supplements and the risk
of AD have not found consistent evidence of a benefit. But now two studies
published in the Journal of the American Medical Association have
found that high intakes of antioxidants from food may reduce the risk
of developing AD.
In the first study, researchers recruited 5,395 participants with an
average age of 67.7 years, who lived independently. All participants
reported their eating habits and went through two mental state examinations
to ensure that they were free of dementia at the start of the study.
During six years of follow-up, the researchers re-screened the participants
for Alzheimer’s disease. They found that high dietary intake of
vitamin C significantly reduced the risk of developing Alzheimer’s
disease and that the reduced risk of AD from high dietary intake of vitamin
E was also borderline significant. These antioxidants were most effective
at preventing AD in current smokers, compared with current non-smokers.
Use of dietary supplements was controlled in this study, so the beneficial
effects of vitamins C and E were only from food. Vitamin C is found in
large amounts in citrus fruits, kiwi, and broccoli, and good sources
of vitamin E include nuts, milk, and egg yolk.
In the second study, participants were also free of Alzheimer’s
disease at the beginning and completed a food frequency questionnaire.
The questionnaire helped researchers keep track of the intake of certain
foods and supplements. The 815 subjects were 65 years and older, and
were followed for four years.
After adjusting for age, education, sex, race, and presence of APOE
e4 (a genetic characteristic that makes a person more likely to develop
AD), the researchers found that those with the highest dietary intake
of vitamin E were 70% less likely to develop AD than those with the lowest
dietary intake of vitamin E. However, the highest Vitamin E intake for
the study was 363.6 International Units (IU) per day, well above the
Recommended Dietary Allowance of 22 IU.
The other dietary antioxidants tested in this study, vitamin C and beta
carotene, did not reduce the risk of AD. More research will need to be
performed to find out why vitamin C proved effective in one study but
not in the other. While dietary antioxidants are proving more effective
in reducing Alzheimer's risk than antioxidant supplements, these weren't
randomized, clinical trials, so these studies won't translate into dietary
August 2002 Update
Back to Top
On-Pump and Off-Pump
Coronary Bypass Surgeries Have Similar Cognitive Outcomes
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is performed to
bypass blood around clogged arteries and improve the flow of blood and
oxygen to the heart. But while these surgeries help the heart, they may
be harming the brain. A study published in 2000 suggested that 23% of
patients suffer from cognitive decline two months after CABG surgery.
The cardiopulmonary bypass, or "on-pump" procedure,
has often been blamed for this decline, in part because it generates
tiny clots that may affect cognitive function. Recent advances have allowed
for CABG surgery to be performed on a beating heart ("off-pump"
CABG). A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association examined
whether off-pump CABG surgery results in a lower incidence of cognitive
decline than on-pump CABG surgery.
Researchers from the Octopus Study Group (named for an off-pump procedure
called the Octopus method) randomly assigned 281 patients scheduled for
their first CABG surgery to either an on-pump or off-pump procedure.
They then administered neuropsychological tests to the patients one day
before surgery and then 3 and 12 months after surgery. The tests assessed
major areas of cognitive function including verbal memory; visuospatial
and motor capacity; selective, sustained, and divided attention; working
memory; and information processing. Cognitive decline was defined as
a 20% decrease in performance from the baseline score in at least 3 of
the areas tested.
At three months after surgery, cognitive decline was found to be 35%
more likely after on-pump surgery; it occurred in 29.2% of patients who
had the on-pump surgery, compared to 21.1% of patients who had the off-pump
procedure. At twelve months, however, the differences in cognitive decline
between the two groups were no longer statistically significant —
33.6% of patients who had on-pump surgery compared to 30.8% of patients
who had off-pump surgery.
The difference in cognitive decline of off-pump versus on-pump surgery
was smaller than expected, and the researchers speculated that factors
other than the cardiopulmonary bypass might be responsible for the cognitive
decline. They proposed that general surgical trauma may be to blame,
or that the off-pump technique itself may be a new source of cognitive
decline. They also noted that the mean age of patients in this study
(61 years) was younger than the average age (66 years) of patients who
have had CABG surgery in the past decade. The off-pump technique may
have additional benefits for older patients with more advanced coronary
artery disease and who often suffer from additional, unrelated medical
May 2001 Update
Back to Top
Statins Associated With Lower Dementia
Most people who develop dementia - poor memory and intellectual functioning
that often accompanies old age - have Alzheimer's disease. But a small,
yet sizable group of people appear to develop dementia from a narrowing
of the arteries supplying the brain. The lack of blood can lead to many
small areas of damage to the brain; each too small to be noticeable as
a "stroke," but collectively devastating in their effect. This syndrome
is called "vascular dementia" to differentiate it from Alzheimer's disease
and other types of dementia.
Presumably because high cholesterol levels contribute to the damage of
brain's blood vessels, researchers have looked for evidence that people
who use statins might have a lower rate of dementia. Statins are the
most widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs. In addition to protecting
the brain's arteries from atherosclerosis, some scientists believe statins
may also help protect the brain against non-vascular forms of dementia,
including Alzheimer's disease.
A recent study examined the relationship between statin use and types
of dementia among people living in the United Kingdom. The researchers
identified 284 people with dementia, and matched them with 1,080 "control"
subjects of similar age and sex, but without dementia. After adjusting
statistically for a wide range of clinical information, the researchers
found statin use was associated with a 71% reduction in dementia risk.
Could statins really cut the risk for dementia by two-thirds or more?
It seems unlikely, since other studies haven't suggested protective effects
of this size. On the other hand, this study adds to several other laboratory
and epidemiological investigations that suggest statins might provide
some benefit in the protecting the brain - if for no other reason than
lower cholesterol levels lead to healthier brain arteries. No one should
start taking statins as a strategy for preventing dementia, but these
data do provide another reason for people with elevated cholesterol levels
who are on these medications to be sure they take them as prescribed.
October 2001 Update
Back to Top
Early Cognitive Impairment Following Coronary Bypass
May Predict Lasting Cognitive Impairment
More than 500,000 coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgical
procedures are performed in the United States each year to bypass blood
around clogged arteries and improve the flow of blood and oxygen to the
heart. Advances in anesthesia, surgical procedure, and other areas have
made CABG a relatively safe procedure for an expanding group of heart
disease patients including older and other high-risk patients. But while
the risk of death after CABG has decreased, the risk of cognitive impairment
has not. Growing evidence suggests that many patients experience short-term
cognitive impairment after CABG.
A recent study in the New England Journal of Medicine confirmed
not only the high incidence but also the persistence of cognitive decline
following the procedure. It also showed that patients who exhibit signs
of cognitive decline immediately following surgery are more likely to
continue to suffer from cognitive decline at up to five years after surgery.
Researchers from Duke University Medical Center tested the cognitive
function of 261 patients before they underwent CABG surgery, and then
again before discharge from the hospital and at six weeks, six months,
and five years after the CABG procedure. 172 patients, whose average
age was 61, completed all of the follow-up.
The researchers found that the incidence of cognitive decline was 53%
at discharge, 36% at six weeks, 24% at six months, and 42% at five years.
The pattern demonstrated improvement of cognitive functioning within
the first six months, and then a decline between six months and five
years after surgery.
Even after controlling for age, education level, and baseline test score,
patients who experienced cognitive decline immediately following surgery
were at a significantly increased risk for long-term cognitive decline
and a reduced level of overall cognitive functioning.
It remains unclear why early, postsurgical cognitive decline is associated
with a greater risk of long-term cognitive decline.
April 2001 Update
Back to Top
Estrogen Replacement Therapy Found Not Effective
for Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease
Several small, short-term clinical trials have indicated that estrogen
may slow or halt the progression of Alzheimer's disease in women, and
many animal studies have suggested mechanisms by which the hormone may
However, in the largest and longest clinical trial of its kind to date,
researchers found that estrogen did not slow or stop cognitive decline,
or improve mood, in women with Alzheimer's disease.
In the randomized, double-blind study, published in the February 23, 2000, Journal
of the American Medical Association, researchers assigned study participants
to receive either a placebo, or a daily dose of either 0.625 mg or 1.25
mg of estrogen. All 120 participants were women with an average age of
75 years who had mild to moderate Alzheimer's. After one year of treatment,
women receiving high- or low-dose estrogen replacement therapy did not
have any cognitive or functional improvements compared to the women who
took a placebo. The researchers concluded that estrogen should not be used
to treat women with established Alzheimer's disease.
Though the results of this study are disappointing, the potential for estrogen
to prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease still exists and is
being investigated in several large-scale studies including the Women's
Health Initiative Memory Study and the Women's International Study of Long
Duration Oestrogen After Menopause.
For more information on Alzheimer's disease, see page 363 of the Harvard
Medical School Family Health Guide. To learn more about estrogen replacement
therapy, see page 1049 of the Harvard Medical School Family Health Guide.
Back to Top
Reduce High Blood Pressure, Reduce the Risk
High systolic blood pressures (when the top blood pressure number is
above normal) in elderly people increases the chances that they will
develop the diminished mental capacity known as dementia. Certainly this
makes sense. High blood pressure damages blood vessels. When the blood
supply to the brain is compromised, there may be damage to the brain
tissue. Sometimes this damage is very abrupt, such as in the loss of
function that may accompany a stroke. Other times, the damage is recognized
gradually, as a person slowly loses some mental capabilities. This is
the case with vascular dementia.
A major European study tested the theory that treating high blood pressure
might reduce the incidence of dementia in elderly people. One-hundred-six
centers in 19 countries enrolled 3,162 patients in this trial. Investigators
randomly assigned these patients to receive either medicine to help lower
blood pressure or a placebo and then followed the health of these individuals
for two years. The results were so compelling that the study was stopped
early. In this study, treatment of high systolic blood pressure reduced
the incidence of dementia by 50%. Put another way, treating 1,000 patients
with high blood pressure, over five years, could prevent 19 cases of
Researchers are just beginning to understand the physiology of dementia
and how we might slow or prevent this process. Controlling high blood
pressure is an important part of staying healthy for many reasons, for
mind as well as body. For more information on dementia, see page 362
in the Family Health Guide.
Back to Top