The Family Health Guide

About the Team

Editor-in-Chief for On-line
Phyllis Jen, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Senior Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Editor-in-Chief
Anthony L. Komaroff, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Senior Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Editors
Christine Junge
Joan McGrath

Web Producer
Colin Price

Associate Editors
Jerry Avorn, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacoeconomics, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Henry H. Bernstein, DO
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Associate Chief, Division of General Pediatrics, Director of Primary Care, Children’s Hospital

Alice Y. Chang, MD
Clinical Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Harvard Pilgrim Health Care

Sara Forman, MD
Instructor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School;
Children’s Hospital

Muriel R. Gillick, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Hebrew Rehabilitation Center for Aged;
Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Susan Haas, MD, MSc
Assistant Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates; Division of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Serena P. Koenig, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Edward Marcantonio, MD
Instructor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Director of Quality Assurance and Outcomes Research, Hebrew Rehabilitation Center for Aged

Mallika Joy Marshall, MD
Clinical Fellow in Medicine and Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital; and Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Victoria McEvoy, MD
Instructor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School;
Medical Director, Massachusetts General West; Chief of Pediatrics, General Medical Associates; Massachusetts General Hospital

Sylvia McKean, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Medical Director of the Hospitalist Services, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Barbara Ogur, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Cambridge Hospital

Susan Pauker, MD, FACMG
Assistant Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard
Medical School; Chief, Genetics Department, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates; Director, Genetics Clinic, Massachusetts General Hospital

Ellen Wells Seely, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital

Robert H. Shmerling, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Firm Chief and Associate Physician, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Harvey B. Simon, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital; Member, Health Sciences Technology Faculty, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

William C. Taylor, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine and Associate Master, W. B. Castle Society, Harvard Medical School; Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Ron M. Walls, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chairman, Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Roy D. Welker, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Medical Director, Brigham Primary Physicians, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Contributing Editors
Abul Khair Abbas, MB, BS
Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

John Anderson, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Geriatric Medicine, Mount Auburn Hospital

Ronald J. Anderson, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Joseph H. Antin, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Dana Farber Cancer Institute

Ronald Arky, MD
Charles S. Davidson Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Abdul Cader Asmal, MD, PhD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard
Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Ann M. Bajart, MD, FACS
Clinical Instructor in Ophthalmology, Harvard
Medical School; Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary; Boston Eye Surgery and Laser Center

Michael Barry, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, General Medicine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital

Vanessa A. Barss, MD
Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School;
Director of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Harvard
Vanguard Medical Associates; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

David Bates, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of General Medicine,
Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Herbert Benson, MD,
President, Mind/Body Medical Institute; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Bonnie Lee Bermas, MD
Clinical Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Director of Clinical Affairs for Women’s Health, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Don C. Bienfang, MD
Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Michael F. Bierer, MD, MPH
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Boston Health Care for the Homeless
Program, Massachusetts General Hospital

David Blumenthal, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine and Associate Professor of Health Policy, Harvard Medical School; Physician and Director, Institute for Health Policy, Massachusetts General Hospital/Partners Healthcare System, Inc.

David H. Bor, MD
Charles S. Davidson Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief of Medicine,
Cambridge Health Alliance

Jonathan F. Borus, MD
Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; Psychiatrist-in-Chief, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

T. Berry Brazelton, MD
Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Emeritus, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

Troyen A. Brennan, MD, JD, MPH
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Professor of Law and Public Health, Harvard School
of Public Health; President, Brigham and Women’s Physician Hospital Organization, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Edward Bromfield, MD
Assistant Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Director, Epilepsy Program and EEG
Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

David C. Brooks, MD
Associate Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Surgeon, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Andrew William Brotman, MD
Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; Psychiatrist-in-Chief, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Charles H. Brown, Jr, MD
Clinical Instructor in Orthopedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Glenn J. Bubley, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Helen Burstin, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Quality Measurement, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Booker T. Bush, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Carlos A. Camargo, Jr, MD, DrPH
Instructor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Associate Physician, Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Karen Carlson, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

David L. Carr-Locke, MD, FRCP
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director of Endoscopy, Division of Gastroenterology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

David C. Christiani, MD, MPH, SM
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Professor of Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital

W. Hallowell Churchill, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Medical Director, Blood Bank, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Edmund S. Cibas, MD
Associate Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Barbara Ann Cockrill, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Co-Director, Partners Asthma Center, Massachusetts General Hospital

Robert Coles, MD
Professor of Psychiatry and Medical Humanities, Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; James Agee Professor of Social Ethics, Harvard University; Harvard University Health Services, Cambridge Hospital

Christopher M. Coley, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief of Medicine, Harvard University Health Services, Massachusetts General Hospital

Earl Francis Cook, Jr., ScD
Professor of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health; Epidemiologist, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Jane Spector Davis
Nutritional Consultant

William C. DeWolf, MD
Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Urologist-in-Chief, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

R. Bruce Donoff, DMD, MD
Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dean, Harvard School of Dental Medicine

Robert Dorwart, MD
Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; Chairman of the Department of Psychiatry, Cambridge Hospital

Catherine E. DuBeau, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

S. Jean Emans, MD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Children’s Hospital

Christopher H. Fanta, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Clinical Director, Partners Asthma Center, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Donna Felsenstein, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

Richard Alan Ferber, MD
Associate Professor of Clinical Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

Julia Rose Fielding, MD
Assistant Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Alan Jay Fischman, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School; Director of Nuclear Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital

Freddy Harold Frankel, MD
Professor of Psychiatry Emeritus, Harvard Medical School; Chairman Emeritus, Department of
Psychiatry, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Soheyla Gharib, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Medical Director, Women’s Health Center and Associate Director of Academic Affairs, Women’s Health Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Joan Helpern Goldberg, MD
Clinical Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Hematologist, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates

Robert M. Goldwyn, MD
Clinical Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

John Lachlan Gollan, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital;
Massachusetts General Hospital

Ernesto Gonzalez, MD
Associate Professor of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

Thomas B. Graboys, MD
Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard
Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Estherann Margaret Grace, MD
Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

Scott R. Granter, MD
Assistant Professor of Pathology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Joop M. Grevelink, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Clinical Dermatology, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

Charles A. Hales, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

L. Howard Hartley, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Stephen Crane Hauser, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Harley Anderson Haynes, MD
Professor of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Howard M. Heller, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital; Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Galen Vincent Henderson, MD
Instructor in Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham & Women's Hospital

Katherine A. F. Hesse, MD, MSW
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

B. Thomas Hutchinson, MD
Associate Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary

John A. Jarcho, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Richard Johnson, MD
Instructor in Dermatology, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Ferenc A. Jolesz, MD
B. Leonard Holman Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Philip Kantoff, MD
Director, Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute; Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School

Adolf Karchmer, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Ichiro Kawachi, MD, PhD
Associate Professor of Health and Social Behavior, Harvard School of Public Health; Assistant Professor of Medicine (Epidemiology), Harvard Medical School; Channing Laboratory

Jonathan Kay, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Lahey Clinic

Nancy L. Keating, MD, MPH
Instructor in Medicine and Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Douglas P. Kiel, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Director of Medical Research, HRCA Research and Training Institute, Hebrew Rehabilitation Center for Aged

David M. Knipe, PhD
Higgins Professor of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School

Amy B. Kuhlik, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Steven Lampert, MD
Clinical Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Department of Cardiology, Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Bruce E. Landon, MD, MBA
Instructor in Health Care Policy and Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate in Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

P. Reed Larsen, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Thyroid Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Alan M. Leichtner, MD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Clinical Director of Gastroenterology,
Children’s Hospital

Lynne L. Levitsky, MD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Pediatric Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital

Clifford Lo, MD, ScD
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

Robert Craig Lowe, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital

Dennis Paul Lund, MD
Assistant Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Director of Trauma Program, Senior Associate in Surgery, Children’s Hospital

James H. Maguire, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Clinical Director, Division of Infectious
Disease, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Ellen Marqusee, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

James W. May, Jr., MD
Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Director of Plastic Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital

Francis J. McGovern, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

Kenneth McIntosh, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases, Children’s Hospital

Mariana D. Mead, MD
Clinical Instructor in Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary

James B. Meigs, MD, MPH
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

Bruce E. Mirbach, MD
Clinical Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Lahey Clinic

Sylvia M. Missal, LICSW
Social Work Manager, Primary Care, Children’s Hospital

Edmund A. Mroz, J.r, PhD
Associate Professor of Physiology, Department of
Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary

Gilbert H. Mudge, Jr, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Senior Physician, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Kerim Munir, Scd, MB, BS
Assistant Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

Howard Lee Needleman, DMD
Clinical Professor of Pediatric Dentistry, Harvard School of Dental Medicine; Associate Dentist-in-Chief, Department of Dentistry, Children’s Hospital

Steven Oberlender, Jr., MD, PhD
Clinical Fellow in Dermatology, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

Patrick T. O’Gara, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Clinical Cardiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Michael Philip O’Leary, MD
Associate Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Nancy E. Oriol, MD
Assistant Professor of Anesthesia and Associate Dean for Student Affairs, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Nancy A. Rigotti, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

H. Gregory Ota, MD
Clinical Instructor in Otology and Laryngology,
Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary

Judith S. Palfrey, MD
T. Berry Brazelton Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of General Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital

Johanna F. Perlmutter, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Mary Pickett, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Senior Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Richard Platt, MD
Professor of Ambulatory Care and Prevention and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Harvard Pilgrim Health Care

Lela Polivogianis, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

Jennifer E. Potter, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Clinical Director, Beth Israel Medical Center for Women’s Health and Learning, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Mitchell T. Rabkin, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
President, Emeritus, Beth Israel Hospital and Care Group; Institute Scholar, The Carl J. Shapiro Institute for Education and Research at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Gregory William Randolph, MD
Instructor in Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School; Director, General Otolaryngology and Thyroid Surgical Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary

Leonard A. Rappaport, MD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Associate Chief, Division of General Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital

John J. Reilly, Jr., MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Medical Director, Lung Transplant Program, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Richard Reindollar, MD
Director, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School

Robert Reinhart, MD
Instructor in Radiology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Neil M. Resnick, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief of Geriatrics, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

James J. Riviello, Jr, MD
Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

Malcolm P. Rogers, MD
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Pablo R. Ros, MD, MPH
Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School; Executive Vice Chair, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Martin A. Samuels, MD
Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Neurologist-in-Chief and Chair, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital; Co-Chair, Partners Neurology

Bruce E. Sands, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Clinical Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research, Massachusetts General Hospital

Paul E. Sax, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Assaad Jean Sayah, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Isaac Schiff, MD
Joe Vincent Meigs Professor of Gynecology, Harvard Medical School; Chief of the Vincent Memorial Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital

Jeremy Dan Schmahmann, MD
Associate Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Director, Ataxia Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital

Eric C. Schneider, MD, MSc
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Richard M. Schwartzstein, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Clinical Director, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Julian L. Seifter, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Steven E. Seltzer, MD
Philip H. Cook Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School; Chair, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Michael W. Shannon, MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Director, The Pediatric Environmental Health Center, Children’s Hospital

Judith S. Shaw, RN, MPH
Director, Injury Prevention Program, Children’s Hospital

Steven J. Shields, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Jane S. Sillman, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Primary Care Residency, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Caren Solomon, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Andrew Sonis, DMD
Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatric Dentistry, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

Stephen T. Sonis, DMD, DMSc
Professor of Oral Medicine, Harvard School of Dental Medicine; Chief, Division of Oral Medicine, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Robert S. Stern, MD
Professor of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

David J. Sugarbaker, MD
Associate Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Vice Chairman, Department of Surgery and Chief, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Craig A. Thompson, MD
Clinical and Research Fellow in Cardiovascular Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Peter V. Tishler, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brockton/West Roxbury Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Lori Wiviott Tishler, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Senior Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Mary M. Torchia, MD
Instructor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Children’s Hospital

Jacques Van Dam, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Director of Endoscopy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Steven E. Weinberger, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Michael Elliott Weinblatt, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director of Clinical Rheumatology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Neil J. Weiner, MD
Clinical Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Section of Hematology, Lahey Clinic

Mary E. Wilson, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief of Infectious Diseases, Mount Auburn Hospital

John W. Winkelman, MD, PhD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Mary Ellen Wohl, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Children’s Hospital

Jacqueline Wolf, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Alan D. Woolf, MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

John D. Yee, MD, MPH
Instructor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Director of Community Medicine, Children’s Hospital

Michael Zinner, MD
Moseley Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Surgeon-in-Chief, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Editorial Director
Heidi Hough
Heidi Hough & Associates Inc.

Book Development
Paul Fargis
Ellen Scordato
The Stonesong Press, Inc.

Writers
Marietta Abrams Brill
Catherine Dold
Stephanie Federico
Nancy Ferrari
Heidi Hough

Margaret Hoyt-Niemiec
Sara Nielsen Gambrill
Kathy Kaye
Anthony L. Komaroff, MD
David LaHoda

Urmila R. Parlikar
Eileen C. Norris
Ted E. Palen, MD, PhD, MSPH
Stephanie Slon
Christopher D. Saunders

Editor
Robin Fitzpatrick Husayko

Design
Martin Lubin
Martin Lubin Graphic Design

Line Art
Harriet Greenfield
Hilda Muinos

Color Art and Replaceable Body Parts
Jacqueline Heda

Acknowledgments
Roberta Miller provided critical support in the handling and indexing of the pieces of the book as they were developed and reviewed. Sally Edwards and Marianna Jakab provided critical images. The American Society of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgeons provided valuable material.

Hospitals and HealthcCare Institutions Affiliated With Harvard Medical School

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Cambridge Hospital
Center for Blood Research
Channing Laboratory
Children’s Hospital
Dana Farber Cancer Institute

General Medical Associates
Harvard Pilgrim Health Care
Hebrew Rehabilitation Center for Aged
Joslin Diabetes Center
Judge Baker Children’s Center
Lahey Clinic
Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary
Massachusetts General Hospital
Massachusetts Mental Health Center
McLean Hospital
Mount Auburn Hospital
Schepens Eye Research Institute
Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital
VA Boston Healthcare System


Ellen Wells Seely, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women's Hospital

Robert H. Shmerling, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Firm Chief and Associate Physician, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Harvey B. Simon, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital; Member, Health Sciences Technology Faculty, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

William C. Taylor, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine and Associate Master, W. B. Castle Society, Harvard Medical School; Division of General Medicine and Primary Care, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Ron M. Walls, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chairman, Department of Emergency Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Roy D. Welker, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
Medical Director, Brigham Primary Physicians, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Judith S. Palfrey, MD
T. Berry Brazelton Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of General Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital

Johanna F. Perlmutter, MD, MPH
Assistant Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Mary Pickett, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Senior Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Richard Platt, MD
Professor of Ambulatory Care and Prevention and Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Harvard Pilgrim Health Care

Lela Polivogianis, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Massachusetts General Hospital

Jennifer E. Potter, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Clinical Director, Beth Israel Medical Center for Women’s Health and Learning, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Mitchell T. Rabkin, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School;
President, Emeritus, Beth Israel Hospital and Care Group; Institute Scholar, The Carl J. Shapiro Institute for Education and Research at Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Gregory William Randolph, MD
Instructor in Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School; Director, General Otolaryngology and Thyroid Surgical Service, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary

Leonard A. Rappaport, MD
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Associate Chief, Division of General Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital

John J. Reilly, Jr., MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Medical Director, Lung Transplant Program, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Richard Reindollar, MD
Director, Division of Reproductive Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; Associate Professor of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Harvard Medical School

Robert Reinhart, MD
Instructor in Radiology, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Neil M. Resnick, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief of Geriatrics, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

James J. Riviello, Jr, MD
Assistant Professor of Clinical Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

Malcolm P. Rogers, MD
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Pablo R. Ros, MD, MPH
Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School; Executive Vice Chair, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Martin A. Samuels, MD
Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Neurologist-in-Chief and Chair, Department of Neurology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital; Co-Chair, Partners Neurology

Bruce E. Sands, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Clinical Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research, Massachusetts General Hospital

Paul E. Sax, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Assaad Jean Sayah, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Isaac Schiff, MD
Joe Vincent Meigs Professor of Gynecology, Harvard Medical School; Chief of the Vincent Memorial Obstetrics and Gynecology Service, Massachusetts General Hospital

Jeremy Dan Schmahmann, MD
Associate Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School; Director, Ataxia Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital

Eric C. Schneider, MD, MSc
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Richard M. Schwartzstein, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Clinical Director, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Julian L. Seifter, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Steven E. Seltzer, MD
Philip H. Cook Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School; Chair, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Michael W. Shannon, MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Director, The Pediatric Environmental Health Center, Children’s Hospital

Judith S. Shaw, RN, MPH
Director, Injury Prevention Program, Children’s Hospital

Steven J. Shields, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Jane S. Sillman, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director, Primary Care Residency, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Caren Solomon, MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Andrew Sonis, DMD
Associate Clinical Professor of Pediatric Dentistry, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

Stephen T. Sonis, DMD, DMSc
Professor of Oral Medicine, Harvard School of Dental Medicine; Chief, Division of Oral Medicine, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Dentistry, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Robert S. Stern, MD
Professor of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School; Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

David J. Sugarbaker, MD
Associate Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Vice Chairman, Department of Surgery and Chief, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Craig A. Thompson, MD
Clinical and Research Fellow in Cardiovascular Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Peter V. Tishler, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brockton/West Roxbury Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Lori Wiviott Tishler, MD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Senior Physician, Brigham and Women's Hospital

Mary M. Torchia, MD
Instructor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Children’s Hospital

Jacques Van Dam, MD, PhD
Assistant Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Associate Director of Endoscopy, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Steven E. Weinberger, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Michael Elliott Weinblatt, MD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Director of Clinical Rheumatology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Neil J. Weiner, MD
Clinical Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Section of Hematology, Lahey Clinic

Mary E. Wilson, MD
Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Chief of Infectious Diseases, Mount Auburn Hospital

John W. Winkelman, MD, PhD
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Mary Ellen Wohl, MD
Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Chief, Division of Respiratory Diseases, Children’s Hospital

Jacqueline Wolf, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Alan D. Woolf, MD, MPH
Associate Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Children’s Hospital

John D. Yee, MD, MPH
Instructor in Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School; Director of Community Medicine, Children’s Hospital

Michael Zinner, MD
Moseley Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School; Surgeon-in-Chief, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Urmila R. Parlikar
Eileen C. Norris
Ted E. Palen, MD, PhD, MSPH
Stephanie Slon
Christopher D. Saunders

Massachusetts General Hospital
Massachusetts Mental Health Center
McLean Hospital
Mount Auburn Hospital
Schepens Eye Research Institute
Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital
VA Boston Healthcare System