Some difficulty with remembering things (like names) and forgetting where you put things (like keys) is so typical that it's considered a normal part of aging.
But some people experience a middle ground of cognitive impairment that's worse than normal age-related problems but not as bad as dementia from Alzheimer's disease or other brain diseases. Researchers labeled this intermediate state "mild cognitive impairment" in the 1980s, and the name stuck.
Mild cognitive impairment stays mild in many cases. At the same time, studies have shown that people with the condition are about three times more likely to develop full-blown dementia than those without it. The problem is that doctors really don't yet have a reliable way of predicting who is going to "progress" to dementia and who isn't.
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